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CT Scan Reveals 3,000-Year-Old Non-Human Egyptian Mummies

CT Scan Reveals 3,000-Year-Old Non-Human Egyptian Mummies

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Two ancient Egyptian sarcophagi were believed to contain human remains. One of them was thought to be a mummified child as it has the appearance of a “small human”. However, CT scanning revealed a surprise inside! The mummies were not, in fact, human. One of them was a bird representing the god Horus and the other “child-like” mummy, was packed with mud and grains in the shape of the god Osiris.

For many decades, both of these ancient sarcophagi had been part of the National Maritime Museum’s collection and while their origins are unknown, the museum’s official records suggested that they contained mummified hearts. But when a team of archaeologists CT scanned the 3,000-year-old “bird and child-like” mummies at Rambam Hospital in Haifa, Israel, the remains of the child-like mummy were found to be a votive offering to Osiris, the Egyptian god of death and lord of the underworld, in the form of a mud and grain packed dummy.

Ancient Protectors of a Journeying Soul

The two mummies date back between 2,500 and 3,000 years and according to a Daily Mail report, the director of medical imaging at Rambam, Dr Marcia Javitt, said the smaller mummy was " bird-like” and contained a mummified bird, most likely a falcon, which was symbolic of Horus, the ancient Egyptian god of kingship and the sky. The larger of the two mummies resembled “a small child” and it turns out that it was actually a hand-crafted plant matter doll representing the god Osiris, and this artifact according to Ron Hillel from Haifa Museums is known as a “grain mummy” or “corn mummy”.

In ancient Egypt when a mummy was being placed in its tomb, artifacts and mummified animals were also added to symbolically protect the mummified remains and the journey of its soul to the afterlife, and the researchers said it is possible these two mummies were buried in a “Pharaoh's tomb,” as an offering to the gods on behalf of the deceased.

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An example of a ‘grain mummy’ (600 – 400 BC) in the form of the god Horus ( CC by SA 4.0 / Wolfgang Sauber )

Guardians of A Deceased Pharaoh?

Dr Javitt said the ancient Egyptians mummified numerous animals including: cats, crocodiles, fish as votive offerings and food for the afterlife, but birds had a very important post-death role in ancient Egypt because they were thought specifically as “protectors,” so they would often place mummified birds and bird-shaped artifacts inside the Pharaoh’s tombs. And while Dr Javitt makes it clear she is not saying this mummified bird definitely came from the tomb of a Pharaoh, she said “it's conceivable that it had something to do with that kind of story”.

The team of researchers combined conventional CT scanning with cutting-edge dual energy CT scanning, also known as “Spectral CT,” which is a computed tomography revealing density, and Dr Javitt said “With mummies, the bones get less dense, the tissues get dehydrated, and it's nothing like scanning a live animal, human or other creature, because the tissue relationships are much different. However, the dual energy CT allowed the researchers to measure the atomic number of the tissue which is not dependent on hydration or condition – “it's elemental” said Dr Javitt.

An example of a ‘corn mummy’ in the form of the god Osiris. While the mummy looks like a small child, it is actually made with mud and grains ( CC by SA 3.0 / Bombaladan )

Questioning the Protected Soul’s Origins

This new research has revealed much about how these two ancient mummies were made, and it is known that they symbolically assisted a deceased Egyptian’s soul after death. Because ancient Egyptians believed in the soul’s immortality, the moment of death was considered a temporary interruption in a journey, rather than what it is today - the cessation of life. And to ensure the continuity of life after death the people paid homage to the gods both during and after their life on earth.

However, what these two mummies represented is only a part of the story and Dr Javitt and her counterparts at the museum told press that they are planning to get back to work next week with the specific goals of determining the origins of the pair of mummies. And to solve the mystery of exactly whose soul the child and bird mummies were designed to protect, the doctor said she and her team will work like "anatomic and archaeological detectives” until they answer all of remaining questions.

3-D scan reveals that mummy is missing its brain

This mummy seems to be missing a brain and other vital organs, new images reveal, and the finding suggests the man held a high status when alive 2,500 years ago in ancient Egypt.

The images indicate that embalmers removed the man's brain and major organs and replaced them with rolls of linen, a superior embalming method used only for those of high status, researchers at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History said in a statement.

When this mummy was transferred to the Smithsonian from the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia in the late 1950s, it was partially unwrapped, and very little was known about the individual, until now.

The new images suggest the mummy was a male who died at age 40 (a relatively mature age by ancient Egyptian standards), and who lived in Lower Egypt between the 20th and 26th dynasties.

The images were taken with a CT scanner, which uses X-rays to generate three-dimensional images of the inside of an object, or mummy in this case.

This and other CT images of human and animal mummies will be displayed on a website to accompany a newly expanded exhibition at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History called "Eternal Life in Ancient Egypt." The exhibition opened April 5. The Web-based images and videos will be posted and additional mummies will be on display starting Nov. 17.

The exhibition will explore ancient Egyptian life, religious beliefs and how burial practices serve as windows into ancient cultures, revealing how archaeologists and physical anthropologists gain these insights through their research.

CT scanning is fast becoming an important tool in an archeologists' tool kit, since it allows them to view the innards of precious objects without disturbing them. For instance, researchers at the University of California, Irvine, used CT scans to diagnose several mummies with heart disease and blocked arteries. CT scans of mummies' skulls are also enabling artists to construct detailed re-creations of 3,000-year-old faces such as that of the Iceman mummy.

You can follow LiveScience staff writer Jennifer Welsh on Twitter @. Follow LiveScience for the latest in science news and discoveries on Twitter and on .

Scientists Reveal Inside Story of Ancient Egyptian Animal Mummies

Ancient Egyptians created animal mummies for various reasons. Some were household pets buried alongside their deceased owners, or other animals that held special importance to the humans around them. Some mummified animals were intended as food offerings to humans in the afterlife. Many others were created to serve as sacred offerings to the gods, who in ancient Egypt often took animal form, including cats, cows, falcons, frog, baboons and vultures, among many others.

Animals mummified for this last purpose were available for purchase or barter at sacred sites. The people who bought them would often give them to a priest, who would then bury collections of the animals as a gift for the gods. This practice, similar to the act of lighting a votive candle at a church, was so widespread in ancient Egypt that animal mummification exploded into big business. Archaeologists have found 30 catacombs in Egypt, each one dedicated to a single animal and each packed floor to ceiling with mummies, for a total numbering in the millions.

In the largest study of its kind, researchers at the Manchester Museum and the University of Manchester have used X-rays and CT scans to examine more than 800 ancient Egyptian animal mummies, many of which are now housed in British museums. The animals examined ranged from birds to cats to crocodiles, with many others in between. While a third of the mummies contained the well-preserved remains of complete animals, researchers found only partial remains in another third of the mummies. Most shockingly, one third of the mummies have been empty of all bones or other animal remains, with the linen wrappings stuffed with items such as mud, sticks, eggshells and feathers.

As Dr. Lidija McKnight, an Egyptologist from the University of Manchester, told BBC News: “We always knew that not all animal mummies contained what we expected them to contain, but we found around a third don’t contain any animal material at all.” McKnight and her colleagues estimate that some 70 million of these mummies were produced over 1,200 years, from roughly 800 B.C. into the Roman period, which ended around 400 A.D. Animal mummification was an industry, they believe, with a special breeding program for all different species of animals, many of which were killed when they were still young and small. Eventually, despite the industrial scale of this operation, the researchers believe the high demand for the animal mummies may have outstripped supply.

So was this all a massive scam? The researchers don’t think so they believe the people burying the mummies probably knew they were fakes, or at least contained only partial remains. In fact, many of the materials used (such as the eggshells and feathers) would have been considered just as important as the animals themselves. As McKnight explains: “They were special because they had been in close contact with the animals – even though they weren’t the animals themselves. So we don’t think it’s forgery or fakery.”

This fall, in conjunction with the research, the Manchester Museum will open an exhibit on animal mummies, in the hopes of illuminating this little-seen aspect of ancient Egyptian culture. For the past several years, as part of an experimental program, McKnight and her fellow researchers have also been creating animal mummies of their own. Animal lovers shouldn’t worry, though: The new mummies are mostly birds, all of which died of natural causes.


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The Mummy Ankhefenmut

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A beautiful exhibit on ancient Egypt at the Albany Institute of History and Art is the current home of a 3,000-year-old mummy called Ankhefenmut, whose true identity was only relatively recently discovered thanks to the marvels of modern medicine.

Ankhefenmut is one of a pair of mummies at the institute whose remains were found at Bab el-Gasus (“Gate of the Priests”) in Egypt, and date to the 21st Dynasty between 1069 and 945 BC. When the mummy arrived at the Albany Institue in 1909, it was fully wrapped (the other was half-wrapped) and was assumed to be a female, due to some unknown seed of misinformation planted decades ago. This misassumption lasted nearly 100 years, until an Egyptologist named Peter Lacovara visited the institute in the 2000s and had a hunch.

Suspicious of the gender, Lacovara suggested that the remains go through a CT scan and X-rays at the Albany Medical Center. To everyone’s surprise, the scans revealed that the mummy had male pelvis bones, a masculine jaw shape, and thicker bones characteristic of the male anatomy. After further careful study of the bones and the corresponding coffin—whose ornate decorations included a name inscribed in hieroglyphics—researchers were able to identify the mummy as Ankhefenmut, a male priest and sculptor of the Temple of Mut near Luxor.

Once the identity was confirmed, the ancient priest’s robe and mummy board were located and put on display at the institute next to the remains. The display is located in the Heinrich Medicus Gallery along with over 70 other ancient Egyptian objects.

Know Before You Go

The Institute of History and Art is open Wednesday through Sunday hours vary. Special group tours are available by appointment. There is a parking lot a the institute and metered parking is also available on the surrounding streets.

Listen to the Recreated Voice of a 3,000-Year-Old Egyptian Mummy

In the nearly 200 years since his mummy’s arrival at the Leeds City Museum in northern England, an ancient Egyptian priest named Nesyamun has slowly but surely revealed his secrets.

Employed as a high-ranking priest and scribe at the Karnak state temple in Thebes, Nesyamun performed rituals filled with both song and speech. Active during the turbulent reign of Ramses XI, who served as Egypt’s pharaoh between 1099 and 1069 B.C., he died in his mid-50s, likely due to a severe allergic reaction, and suffered from ailments including gum disease and heavily worn teeth. And, as evidenced by inscriptions on his coffin, Nesyamun hoped his soul would one day speak to the gods much as he had in life.

A new study published in the journal Scientific Reports fulfills the 3,000-year-old priest’s vision of the afterlife, drawing on CT scans of his surprisingly intact vocal tract to engineer an approximation of his voice. The sound bite, created with a speech synthesizing tool called the Vocal Tract Organ, reconstructs “the sound that would come out of his vocal tract if he was in his coffin and his larynx came to life again,” says study co-author David Howard, a speech scientist at Royal Holloway, University of London, to the New York Times’ Nicholas St. Fleur.

The clip itself is brief and vaguely underwhelming, capturing a single vowel sound media outlets have described as “resembl[ing] a brief groan,” “a bit like a long, exasperated ‘meh’ without the ‘m,’” “a sound caught between the words ‘bed’ and ‘bad,’” and “rather like ‘eeuuughhh.’”

Per the Washington Post’s Ben Guarino, Howard and his colleagues used a CT scan of Nesyamun’s vocal tract—a biologically unique speech-supporting tube that stretches from the larynx to the lips—to 3-D print a copy of his throat. They then hooked this artificial organ to a loudspeaker and played an electronic signal mimicking the sound of a “human larynx acoustic output.” (Howard has previously used this technique on living humans, including himself, but the new research marks the first time the technology has been used to recreate a deceased individual’s voice, reports CNN’s Katie Hunt.)

Though the study serves as proof-of-concept for future voice recreation research, it has several practical limitations. As co-author and University of York archaeologist John Schofield tells Gizmodo’s George Dvorsky, Nesyamun’s supine burial position curbed the experiment’s scope.

Schofield explains, “The vocal tract has only one shape here—the shape as he lies in his sarcophagus—that produced just one sound.”

Another limiting factor, says Howard to CNN, was the priest’s lack of tongue muscles, which had long since wasted away. In truth, the speech scientist adds, the noise heard in the audio isn’t a “sound he would ever likely have made in practice because the bulk of his tongue isn’t there.”

Daniel Bodony, an aeroacoustics expert at the University of Illinois who was not involved in the study, tells the Post the team’s electronic approximation “sounds tinny” because Nesyamun’s mummy lacks fleshy, vibrating vocal folds capable of adding “richness and emotion” to one’s words.

In the future, the researchers may be able to overcome this and other obstacles by modifying their software to better approximate such factors as the size of the priest’s tongue and the position of his jaw. The team’s eventual goal is to move beyond singular vowel sounds to words and even full sentences.

“When visitors encounter the past, it is usually a visual encounter,” says Schofield to the Post. “With this voice we can change that. There is nothing more personal than someone’s voice.”

Still, some scholars—including Kara Cooney, an Egyptologist at the University of California, Los Angeles—have expressed concerns over the implications of the new study.

Though she acknowledges the work’s potential, Cooney tells the Times, “When you’re taking a human being and using so much inference about what they looked or sounded like, it can be done with an agenda that you might not even be aware of.”

Little ancient Egyptian mummies hold surprises inside … and they aren't human

CT scans revealed unexpected findings inside these ancient Egyptian mummies.

When scientists peered beneath the wrappings of two small ancient Egyptian mummies thought to hold human hearts, they were taken aback: Not only were there no noticeable hearts inside, but the remains were not even human.

Rather, one of the mummies is tightly packed with grain and mud — a so-called corn or grain mummy — while the other holds the remains of a bird, possibly a falcon, that is missing a body part and several organs, the researchers found.

"It's missing its left leg, nobody knows why," said Dr. Marcia Javitt, chairperson of radiology at Rambam Hospital in Haifa, Israel, and an adjunct professor of radiology at The George Washington University in Washington, D.C., who helped scan the mummies with computed tomography (CT) on June 29.

The two mummies, both interred in sarcophagi, have been housed at Haifa Museum for about 50 years. However, "records were not kept as diligently as they are now," so not much is known about them except that they're more than 2,000 years old, Ron Hillel, registrar and head of collection management of Haifa Museums, told Live Science.

Over the past few years, the National Maritime Museum in Haifa has been going through its collection and determining the best way to preserve each artifact. When curators came across the two mummies, they realized they didn't know what was inside. The records noted they contained mummified hearts, but "we did the research and it didn't make sense," Hillel said. Often, (but not always) "the hearts were left in the body," of Egyptian mummies, Hillel said, because the ancient Egyptians thought that when people died, their hearts would be weighed against a feather representing ma'at, an Egyptian concept that includes truth and justice, Live Science previously reported. If the heart weighed the same or less than the feather, these people would earn eternal life if not, they would be destroyed.

The CT scans done at Rambam Hospital revealed that the mummies had very different insides from one another. The roughly 18-inch-long (45 centimeters) human-shaped mummy — designed to look like Osiris, the god of the afterlife, the dead, life and vegetation — contained mud and grains.

"During Osiris festivals that were held, [the ancient Egyptians] would produce these," Hillel said. "It would be a mixture of a clay or sand with these grains, and then they would dip it in water and the grains would germinate." In effect, this act would tie Osirus to death, life and Earth's fertility.

Or, as Javitt put it, "they're not real mummies they're artifacts."

The other mummy, a roughly 10-inch-long (25 cm) bird-shaped mummy, represented the god Horus. According to Egypt mythology, Horus was the falcon-headed son of Osiris and Isis a deity associated with the sky and pharaohs.

Over time, the bird mummy had desiccated, meaning that the tissue got more dense, like beef jerky. Meanwhile, the marrow in the bones had dried out, leaving nothing but delicate bone tubes. So Javitt and her colleagues used a dual-energy CT, which uses both normal X-rays and less powerful X-rays, a technique that can reveal properties of the tissues that a regular CT scan can't, Javitt said.

"In order to differentiate the soft tissues from one another and the bones and so on, it can be very helpful to use a dual-energy CT," Javitt said.

Now, her team is identifying the bird's various tissues and bones. Javitt noted that the bird's neck is broken, but that this injury likely happened after the bird was dead. That's because the skin is broken too, and in most cases of broken bones, "you don't usually crack open the skin from one edge to the opposite side, you just break the bone," Javitt said.

Moreover, the bird appears to be missing some of its abdominal organs, but more study is needed to determine which ones aren't there, she said. For instance, the heart appears to be present, as is the trachea.

Going forward, Hillel said the museum may make a special exhibit centered around these two mummies. He also hopes to have them dated with radiocarbon 14, so the museum can determine their age.

Originally published on Live Science.

One of these tiny mummies held the remains of a bird missing certain body parts.

Little ancient Egyptian mummies hold surprises inside … and they aren't human : Read more

An interesting article on the 18" and 10" mummies, which posed two questions for me to ponder. Did the Egyptians adopt Chinese customs of burying ancestors with provisions for the after life, or did China pick it up from the Egyptian way? And was the grain for planting so ancestors had food in the afterlife with the bird (mentioned) as a pet?

Regarding the bird, though, and the way the skin was cut I also wonder if this may have been an ancient for anatomy education for physicians or healers? I've not studied much about ancient Egypt, but being an RN who loves science suggests I should find time to study it.

An interesting article on the 18" and 10" mummies, which posed two questions for me to ponder. Did the Egyptians adopt Chinese customs of burying ancestors with provisions for the after life, or did China pick it up from the Egyptian way? And was the grain for planting so ancestors had food in the afterlife with the bird (mentioned) as a pet?

Regarding the bird, though, and the way the skin was cut I also wonder if this may have been an ancient for anatomy education for physicians or healers? I've not studied much about ancient Egypt, but being an RN who loves science suggests I should find time to study it.

With all due respect, it's not really something you 'find time' to study. The intricacies of the study of mummies take years (and sometimes decades) to understand. Some of the experts are even surprised by finds even after they've been in the field for decades.

I'm simply saying that you may be able to get a quick and dirty understanding of the basics of the field with a little research, but you won't be gaining enough knowledge to truly understand the field without a LOT of study. That's not something someone just 'finds time' to do.

Grammatically, "with all due respect" is interpreted as an insult because it questions what is due, whereas, Respectfully, is seen are respect for the person addressed. I will assume you meant the latter, not the former.

As for whether the was used for science in Ancient Egypt, or it was just cut up is not a huge field to find an answer. As for how long it takes to comprehend Ancient Egypt and mummification, I would say that depends on the person their drive, their free time, and their intellect. Never judge another by one's own life. I happen to be that person who can and does find time to do what I desire. Doing what one wants is a choice, after all.

Ancient Egypt: 3,000-year-old mummy archaeology reveals ‘new’ secrets of the dead

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The latest analysis of a 20th Dynasty mummified individual reveals her rare mud carapace or outer shell. Examinations of mummified bodies from the late New Kingdom to the 21st Dynasty &ndash approximately 1294 to 945 BC &ndash have periodically reported encountering a strange resinous shell.

Related articles

This protects the body enclosed within, especially for royal mummies dating from this period.

The mud shell encasing the body of a mummified woman within the textile wrappings is a new addition to our understanding of ancient Egyptian mummification

Dr Karin Sowada

Dr Karin Sowada from Macquarie University and colleagues have now reported their discovery of a rare painted mud carapace enclosing an adult mummy relocated to Sydney's Chau Chak Wing Museum.

Sir Charles Nicholson bought the mummified body, lidded coffin, and mummy board as a set during a trip to Egypt in 1856-7, before donating it to the University of Sydney soon after.

The coffin inscription identifies the owner as a titled woman named Meruah, and the iconography dates it to roughly 1000 BC.

Ancient Egypt: Mummified individual and coffin in the Nicholson Collection of the Chau Chak Wing Mus (Image: Sowada et al, PLOS ONE)

Ceremony of Opening the Mouth of the Mummy before the Tomb, c1300BC (Image: Getty)


Despite the mummified body undergoing a full computed tomography (CT) scan in 1999, the authors rescanned the body for the current study using the latest tech.

Using this new visualisation of the dentition and skeleton, the authors determined the mummified individual was a young middle-aged adult.

The body scans did not reveal external genitalia, and internal reproductive organs had been removed during the mummification process.

However, secondary sexual characteristics of boners including hip bones, jaw and skull indicate the mummified individual was female.

Royal Prince Djeptahiufankh, the son of a High Priest of Amun (Image: Getty)

Necropolis at Shaykh 'Abd al-Qurnah, mural depicting flower bearers (Image: Getty)

The current analysis of the mummification technique and radiocarbon dating of textile samples from the linen wrappings place the mummified individual in the late New Kingdom &ndash approximately 1200to 1113 BC.

As a result, the body is older than the coffin, suggesting local 19th-century dealers placed an unrelated body in the coffin to sell as a complete set.

The new scans also revealed the extent and nature of the mud carapace, revealing the mud shell fully-sheaths the body and is layered within the linen wrappings.

Related articles


Pictures from the most internal layers indicate the body was damaged relatively shortly after initial mummification and the mud carapace and additional wrappings applied to reunify and fix the dead body.

In addition to its practical restorative purpose, Egyptian archaeology experts suggest the mud carapace gave those who cared for the deceased the chance to emulate elite funerary practices of coating the body in an expensive imported resin shell with cheaper, locally sourced materials.

And although this mud carapace treatment has not been previously documented in the literature, the researchers warn it is not yet possible to determine how frequently this treatment may have been used for non-elite mummies in the late New Kingdom of ancient Egypt.

The latest analysis of a 20th Dynasty mummified individual reveals her rare mud carapace or outer shell (Image: Express)

Ancient Egypt: 3,000-year-old mummy archaeology reveals &lsquonew&rsquo secrets of the dead (Image: Express)


They also suspect additional radiological studies on other non-royal mummies may reveal more about this practice.

Dr Sowada&rsquos team wrote: "The mud shell encasing the body of a mummified woman within the textile wrappings is a new addition to our understanding of ancient Egyptian mummification."

The fact of the matter is that no matter how much we advance our technology and no matter how far we claim

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Watch the video: CT scan of 3,000-year-old Ancient Egypt mummy show it represents god Osiris (August 2022).