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Shoshone III AO-151 - History

Shoshone III AO-151 - History



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Shoshone III

(AO-151: dp. 7,761; 1. 620'; b. 84'; dr. 32', s. 18 k.
cpl. 52; cl. Maumee; T. 5-S-12A)

The third Shoshone (AO-151) was laid down on 15 August 1955 by Sun Shipbuilding & Drydock Co., Chester, Pa., launched on 17 January 1957, sponsored by Mrs. James E. Van Zandt, and placed in service with the Military Sea Transportation Service (MSTS) in April 1957.

Shoshone is a contract-operated tanker with a civilian crew and, since being placed into service, has delivered fuel oil and gasoline to American Forces at Atlantic and Pacific ocean ports. Into September 1974, she still operates with MSTS, now called the Military Sealift Command, from gulf coast ports.


Bill Cody Ranch

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HORSEBACK TRAIL RIDES

Saddle up with us to explore the stunning peaks, lakes, and spires of Shoshone National Forest. Be our guest for majestic Yellowstone country horseback rides. Even if you're not a ranch guest.

PACKAGES

Enjoy the most flexible all-inclusive dude ranch stay of your life. Nightly package rates include three delicious meals and a spectacular four-hour horseback ride in some of our favorite terrain.


How Railroads Took Native American Lands in Kansas

Although the Union Pacific was built across the Nebraska prairie in the late 1860s, there were other routes and plans competing for U.S. government and foreign investment in the 1850s. Across vast sections of the middle United States, Indian nations held title to hundreds of thousands of acres by treaty, and any railroad project through these lands would need to obtain a right of way or title. For years in the 1850’s all sorts of powerful interests campaigned for selection and funding as the first transcontinental railroad. In this complex jockeying for position, Northern investors and the U.S. government arranged to defraud the Indian nations of nearly all of their lands along the principal routes in Kansas.

In Kansas the expansion of the railroads in the 1850s jeopardized every treaty the U. S. government had struck with Indian nations. The roads were expanding so quickly that white settlement in Indian lands could not be held back. “Railroads built and building from the Atlantic and Gulf cities, not only reach the Mississippi river at about twenty different points,” Commissioner of Indian Affairs George Manypenny wrote in 1856, “but are extending west across Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, and Iowa. Roads of that character have also been commenced in Texas, looking to El Paso, and in Iowa, looking for the great bend in the Minnesota river for a present, and for Pembina for a future terminus. The railroad companies of Missouri and Iowa are even now seeking aid from Congress to enable them to extend their roads to New Mexico, Kansas, Nebraska, and Utah, and thence to California, Oregon, and Washington.”

Manypenny found it “impossible to avoid the conclusion” that “in a few years” the railroads lined up from New Orleans to the west shore of Lake Superior on their jumping off points would reach into the interior west. He also saw that “an active population will keep up with the advance of the railroads.” Manypenny thought that if the country were “favored with peace and prosperity” the railroads would cross the plains and link up the nation within “ten years.” Indeed, he considered the “physical changes impending” to be “at our very door.”

Tens of thousands of Euro-Americans took the Overland Trail west in the 1850s, settled on the Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, and Minnesota prairies, and crossed into Native lands. For Native Americans Manypenny’s observations abounded in ironies. Between 1853 and 1856, the U.S. government initiated and signed over fifty-two treaties with Native groups and each of these legal documents duly recorded vast cessions of lands. Indian agents and the Bureau of Indian Affairs inaugurated a series of policies aimed at bringing Native Americans onto reservations and clearing corridors for white settlement and travel. The agency’s reports were couched in the guise of “civilization” and littered with the language of progress. Much of their efforts were aimed at restricting the mobility of all of the Indian tribes, fixing them on a reservation, out of the way for railroad development on the prairies.

The Delaware, the Kickapoo, and the Shoshone struck treaties allowing railroad development across their reservations, but each treaty was filled with fraudulent loopholes. Each treaty asserted in a key provision that the Delaware, Kickapoo, and Shoshone held “the belief that the value of their lands will be enhanced by having a railroad passing through their present reservation.” Ostensibly, in the case of the Delaware, their lands were to be appraised by commissioners appointed by the Secretary of the Interior and then sold for a minimum of $1.25 per acre to the Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western Railroad Company. In addition, the railroad company would pay for surveying the land, and only by completing several twenty-five mile stretches of railroad would the company obtain official title to the lands. “By this treaty fifty miles of railroad are secured to the Territory of Kansas, without one dollar being paid from the territorial treasury or by the general government,” the conniving and manipulative agent Thomas B. Sykes boasted.

The connections the railroad would make were self-evident to Sykes: “It will connect at Leavenworth with the Platte country and St. Joseph railroad, and thence on by the way of Chicago to New York also at Leavenworth with the St. Louis and Pacific railroad, and at St. Louis with all the eastern and southern roads. This is the first and greatest link in the great Pacific railway, west of the state of Missouri. It is another step toward the Pacific shores. It is another link in the iron chain that is to bind the Atlantic to the Pacific.”

Throughout these negotiations, the Leavenworth, Pawnee, and Western Railroad Company was represented by Thomas Ewing, Jr., a young aspiring attorney who had moved to Kansas in 1856 to set up his law practice. A well-placed Republican from Ohio, Ewing was also step-brother and brother-in-law of William T. Sherman. A few years later a set of similar treaties with the Pottowatomie and the Kickapoo in Kansas opened the way for further extension of the railroads. These treaties divested 576,000 acres from the former nation and 150,000 acres from the latter. Both treaties asserted that the “civilization” of the Indians would be advanced by dividing their common lands up into sections for individual Indian settlement, a process called “severalty.” The treaties further stipulated that only when the President was “satisfied” that these individuals were “sufficiently intelligent and prudent to control their affairs and interests” would he allow them to possess full title to the land in “fee simple.” Furthermore, in its key provisions each treaty authorized Ewing’s railroad company, the Fort Leavenworth, Pawnee, and Western, to have the “the privilege of buying the remainder of their lands.” In other words, the railroad was to be “extended through their reserve” and only the railroad company had the right to purchase the leftover sections that were not taken in severalty by individual Indians. The company could make this move “within six months after the tracts herein otherwise disposed of shall have been selected and set apart.” The Kickapoo in Kansas struck a similar arrangement but with the Atchison and Pike’s Peak Railroad Company.

In each treaty there were massive irregularities. The Delaware maintained that the four chiefs who signed their treaty were drunk and bribed by special lifelong salary provisions. Their agent, Thomas B. Sykes, was thought to have provided them with copious amounts of liquor on signing day. But the defrauding of the Delaware had two additional, more significant injustices. The first was that the treaty provided for the appointment of independent appraisers to assign a value to the lands left over after allotment. There were over 223,000 acres appraised and they extended across much of the richest prairie soil in Kansas. The railroad had to pay a minimum of $1.25 an acre but the lands were worth much more than that. When the commissioners came back with a value of $1.28 an acre, just above the minimum and far below what the lands were worth, the Delaware had little recourse for appeal. Second, the railroad company was supposed to pay $286,742.15 for the land in “gold or silver coin” but the company paid in bonds secured by 100,000 acres of the land, and then offered the remaining 123,000 acres for sale at prices from $20 to $50 an acre. Pocketing the difference, the railroad company directors put up no cash in the deal.

Kansas in this period was a cauldron for fraudulent railroad schemes, but not all agents were as corrupt and irresponsible as Sykes. The Neosho’s Agent, Andrew J. Dorn, caught wind of a land deal that a railroad company independently struck with the Osage Indians and he reported the incident to the Commissioner on Indian Affairs and the Secretary of the Interior in 1858. Rumors flew that various railroad companies were consolidating large tracts of land, especially those with valuable timber, and swindling the Indian groups whenever necessary into selling them. All of these deals took place in clear violation of the Intercourse Act restricting trade with Native Americans and limiting the purchase and sale of Indian lands to the U.S. government by treaty. But, as in the case of the Delaware, Pottowatomie, Shoshone, and Kickapoo, the U.S. government’s administered treaties contained within them plenty of opportunity for duplicity and fraud.

Sources: Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1856 (Washington: A. O. P. Nicholson Printers, 1857): 22-23, Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, November 22, 1856. Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1860 (Washington: A. O. P. Nicholson Printers, 1860): 103. Report of Thomas B. Sykes, Delaware Agency, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Territory, September 16, 1860. For copies of the original treaties, see Ayer collection, Volume 3. oE 95 .U69 1825, Newberry Library. Clinton Alfred Wesieger, The Delaware Indians: A History (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1972): 414. Andrew J. Dorn to Charles E. Mix, January 14, 1858 J. Thompson to Charles E. Mix, February 9, 1858 R. S. Stevens to Hon. J. W. Denver, April 14, 1858, University of Kansas, Territorial Kansas Online. A balanced account of the treaties and the possible advantages of the railroads for Indian groups is H. Craig Miner and William E. Unrau, The End of Indian Kansas: A Study of Cultural Revolution, 1854-1871 (Lawrence: Regents Press of Kansas, 1978), chapter 2. Also for a critical account, see Paul Wallace Gates, Fifty Million Acres: Conflicts over Kansas Land Policy, 1854-1890 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1954). And Francis Paul Prucha, American Indian Treaties: The History of a Political Anomaly (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994), 235-287.


Where Does the Name Moses Come From?

1500 – 1480 BC is the time of the pharaoh Queen Hatshepsut, and she had a close confidant, described by the well-known Egyptologist Joyce Tyldesley in her book on Hatshepsut, as the ‘Greatest of the Great’.

The father of Hatshepsut was Thutmose l , and his name means ‘son of Thoth’, the god of wisdom, ‘mose’ meaning ‘son’. This is a common use of the word ‘mose’ as in ‘Ra meeses’, son of the sun god Ra, etc.

The biblical text tells us that it was the pharaoh’s daughter who named Moses. Exodus 2 v 10 states that, “she called him Moses because she said, ‘I drew him out of the water’”.

But we will not find a Prince Moses in the court in Egypt because another bible reference, Hebrews 11 v 24, states that “ Moses, when he had grown up, refused to be known as the son of Pharaoh’s daughter”.

Instead, we find that the close confidant of the queen is a man called ‘ Senenmut’. This appears to be a unique name, and one of its meanings is ‘mother’s brother’. Hatshepsut was born in the early 1530s, so they were close in age, so such a name makes sense.


The Importance of Beadwork for Native Americans

Archeologists have found beads of varying materials, styles, and sizes in digs focused on various Native American settlements and tribes over the years. Originally, they may have been used as a type of currency for trades among tribes and individuals. Primarily, they simply decorated everything from buffalo hide belts to complex necklaces that featured story bead combinations.[ii] Unlike European artwork designed to stay in place and decorate a room, the nomadic nature of the Native Americans necessitated a combination of design and functionality. Their bead-based art existed in clothing, everyday objects, and their tents and horse tack.[iii]

One of the earliest forms includes porcupine quills stitched painstakingly onto moccasins and robes. These natural items were easy to gather from hunted animals, could be cut to any length that suited the design, and already had a natural hole through the middle. Then, Native American beadwork continued when the people used stone tools or abrasive sand to shape other materials and drill holes through them. Semi-precious stones like turquoise and jasper were quite popular, especially in the southwestern section of the country. Those early years of wood, shell, and stone gave way quickly to the more colorful and flashy glass, ceramic, or metal beads in silver and copper.

After the Europeans came, beadwork changed somewhat in both practice and value. The initial rarity of the bright glass beads made their worth skyrocket. Wampum, or shell beads threaded on a cord, were frequently used by both settlers and indigenous people until it became so commonplace that its value plummeted. [iv]Native American beadwork patterns became a symbol of wealth, were used in marriage ceremonies, trade agreements, and treaties. Some involve ritualistic use and were often used in spiritual dances and celebrations.

In these modern days, Native American beading remains important for both the people themselves and as a cultural artifact that teaches all about an important part of history. From a purely decorative standpoint, many people from all cultures and traditions simply love the look of the unique woven beadwork designs associated with various native peoples. Visitors can view exceptional pieces at history museums across the country. Fans can purchase authentically crafted jewelry and other accessories from shops both online and off. Many non-native people and companies also use the techniques and styles of the North American indigenous population's beading artwork to create new, modern designs or mimic older ones.


Compilation of Periodical Literature: American Indian Cluster

"Making Their Mark: Signatures, Famous and Ordinary, Set America's Course and Revealed Their Owners". Prologue 46, no.1 (Spring 2014): 6-17.
Online version
RG046/RG065/RG075/RG094/RG129/RG147/ RG153/RG204/RG210/RG233/RG255/RG306/RG360/FDR Library/HST Library/DDE Library/LBJ Library

"Nixon on the Home Front". Prologue 44, no.4 (Winter 2012): 6-15.
Online version
RG075/RG306/RG412/RMN Library

"The Indian School Journal". Prologue 43, no.2 (Summer 2011): 72.
RG075

Abbott, Kathryn A. "Alcohol and the Anishinaabeg of Minnesota in the Early Twentieth Century". Western Historical Quarterly 30, no.1 (Spring 1999): 25-43.
RG075

Abbott, Martin L., Kenneth D. Tollefson, and Eugene Wiggins. "Tribal Estates: A Comparative and Case Study". Ethnology 35, no.4 (Fall 1996): 321-339.
RG075

Abing, Kevin. "A Holy Battleground: Methodist, Baptist, and Quaker Missionaries among Shawnee Indians, 1830-1844". Kansas History 21, no.2 (Summer 1998): 118-137.
RG075

Abing, Kevin. "Before Bleeding Kansas: Christian Missionaries, Slavery, and the Shawnee Indians in Pre-Territorial Kansas, 1844-1854". Kansas History 24, no.1 (Spring 2001): 54-70.
RG048/RG075

Abler, Thomas S. "Protestant Missionaries and Native Culture: Parallel Careers of Asher Wright and Silas T. Rand". American Indian Quarterly 16, no.1 (Winter 1992): 25-37.
RG075

Abram, Susan M. "'To Keep Bright the Bonds of Friendship': The Making of a Cherokee-American Alliance during the Creek War". Tennessee Historical Quarterly 71, no.3 (Fall 2012): 228-256.
RG075/RG094

Ackley, Kristina. "Haudenosaunee Genealogies: Conflict and Community in the Oneida Land Claim". American Indian Quarterly 33, no.4 (Fall 2009): 462-478.
RG075

Adams, David Wallace. "More than a Game: The Carlisle Indians Take to the Gridiron, 1893-1917". Western Historical Quarterly 32, no.1 (Spring 2001): 25-53.
RG075

Adams, David Wallace. "Schooling the Hopi: Federal Indian Policy Writ Small, 1887-1917". Pacific Historical Review 48, no.3 (August 1979): 335-356.
RG075/RG094

Adams, Kevin and Khal Schneider. "'Washington is a Long Way Off': The 'Round Valley War' and the Limits of Federal Power on a California Indian Reservation". Pacific Historical Review 80, no.4 (November 2011): 557-596.
RG075/RG393

Adams, Mikaela M. "Residency and Enrollment: Diaspora and the Catawba Indian Nation". South Carolina Historical Magazine 113, no.1 (January 2012): 24-49.
RG075

Agnew, Brad. "The Cherokee Struggle for Lovely's Purchase". American Indian Quarterly 2, no.4 (Winter 1975-76): 347-361.
RG075/RG393

Agnew, Kelley. "Tragedy of the Goingsnake District: The Shoot-out at Zeke Proctor's Trial". Chronicles of Oklahoma 64, no.3 (Fall 1986): 90-99.
RG075

Agogino, George, and Bobbie Ferguson. "The Easter Ceremony of the Mayo Indians of Sinaloa, Mexico". Indian Historian 11, no.1 (Winter 1978): 17-28.
RG075

Agonito, Joseph. "Young Man Afraid of His Horses: The Reservation Years". Nebraska History 79, no.3 (Fall 1998): 116-132.
RG048/RG075/RG094

Ahern, Wibert H. "Indian Education and Bureaucracy: The School at Morris, 1887-1909". Minnesota History 49, no.3 (Fall 1984): 82-98.
RG075

Alegria, Crystal and Marsha Fulton. "Fraud at Fort Parker: How Corruption and Contracting Built Early Bozeman". Montana 66, no.3 (Autumn 2016): 51-67.
RG075

Algier, Keith. "Robert Meldrum and the Crow Peltry Trade". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 36, no.3 (Summer 1986): 36-47.
RG011/RG075

Allison, James R., III. "Beyond the Violence: Indian Agriculture, White Removal, and the Unlikely Construction of the Northern Cheyenne Reservation, 1876-1900". Great Plains Quarterly 32, no.2 (Spring 2012): 91-111.
RG075

Almlie, Elizabeth J. "Memories Painted on the Walls: Felix Walking and the Murals of the Old Marty Gym". South Dakota History 43, no.4 (Winter 2013): 279-319.
RG029/RG075

Altherr, Thomas L. "The Pajarito or 'Cliff Dwellers' National Park Proposal, 1900-1920". New Mexico Historical Review 60, no.3 (July 1985): 271-294.
RG048/RG075/RG079

Alton, Thomas. "Politics, Economics, and the Schools: Roots of Alaska Native Language Loss since 1867". Alaska History 20, no.2 (Fall 2005): 19-41.
RG075/RG200

Anderson, Gary Clayton. "The Native Peoples of the American West: Genocide or Ethnic Cleansing?". Western Historical Quarterly 47, no.4 (Winter 2016): 407-433.
RG075/RG153/RG393

Anderson, Gary Clayton. "The Removal of the Mdewakanton Dakota in 1837: A Case for Jacksonian Paternalism". South Dakota History 10, no.4 (Fall 1980): 310-333.
RG075

Andrews, Thomas G. "Tata Atanasio Trujillo's Unlikely Tale of Utes, Nuevomexicanos, and the Settling of Colorado's San Luis Valley". New Mexico Historical Review 75, no.1 (January 2000): 4-41.
RG075

Andrews, Thomas G. "Turning the Tables on Assimilation: Oglata Lakotas and the Pine Ridge Day Schools, 1889-1920s". Western Historical Quarterly 33, no.4 (Winter 2002): 407-430.
RG075

Anson, Bert. "Chief Francis Lafontaine and the Miami Emigration from Indiana". Indiana Magazine of History 60, no.3 (September 1964): 241-268.
RG075

Arnold, Morris S. "The Metis People of Eighteenth-and Nineteenth-Century Arkansas". Louisiana History 57, no.3 (Summer 2016): 261-296.
RG075

Asher, Brad. "'Their Own Domestic Difficulties': Intra-Indian Crime and White Law in Western Washington Territory, 1873-1889". Western Historical Quarterly 27, no.2 (Summer 1996): 189-209.
RG075

Asher, Brad. "A Shaman-killing Case on Puget Sound, 1873-1874: American Law and Salish Culture". Pacific Northwest Quarterly 86, no.1 (Winter 1994/95): 17-24.
RG075

Bailey, Jody, and Robert S. McPherson. "'Practically Free from the Taint of the Bootlegger': A Closer Look at Prohibition in Southeastern Utah". Utah Historical Quarterly 57, no.2 (Spring 1989): 150-164.
RG075

Baird, W. David. "Are There Real Indians in Oklahoma?". Chronicles of Oklahoma 68, no.1 (Spring 1990): 4-23.
RG075

Baker, Joshua Lee. "Privates George Thompson Baker and Andrew Jackson Baker, Company F, Seventh Kentucky Volunteer Infantry Regiment, USA". Kentucky Ancestors 46, no.26 (Winter 2011): 60-66.
RG015/RG029/RG075/RG094

Bales, Rebecca. "Winema and the Modoc War: One Woman's Struggle for Peace". Prologue 37, no.1 (Spring 2005): 24-35.
Online version
RG015/RG075/RG094/RG111/RG165/RG393

Ball, Larry D. "Federal Justice on the Santa Fe Trail: The Murder of Antonio Jose Chavez". Missouri Historical Review 81, no.1 (October 1986): 1-17.
RG075/RG204

Barr, Thomas P. "The Pottawatomie Baptist Manual Labor Training School". Kansas Historical Quarterly 63, no.4 (Winter 1977): 377-431.
RG075

Barry, Louise. "Kansas before 1854: A Revised Annals". Kansas Historical Quarterly 32, no.4 (Winter 1966): 426-503.
RG075

Barry, Louise. "Kansas before 1854: A Revised Annals". Kansas Historical Quarterly 33, no.1 (Spring 1967): 13-64.
RG075

Barry, Louise. "The Kansa Indians and the Census of 1843". Kansas Historical Quarterly 39, no.4 (Winter 1973): 478-490.
RG075

Barsh, Lawrence Russel. "Banishing the Spirits: Indian Agents and the Pacific Northwest Winter Dance". Journal of the West 39, no.3 (Summer 2000): 54-65.
RG075

Bauer, William J., Jr. "'We Were All Migrant Workers Here': Round Valley Indian Labor in Northern California, 1850-1929". Western Historical Quarterly 37, no.1 (Spring 2006): 43-63.
RG075

Baxter, John O. "Restocking the Navajo Reservation after Bosque Redondo". New Mexico Historical Review 58, no.4 (October 1983): 325-345.
RG075

Beeton, Beverly. "Teach Them to Till the Soil: An Experiment with Indian Farms 1850-1862". American Indian Quarterly 3, no.4 (Winter 1977/78): 299-320.
RG075/RG098

Behrens, Jo Lea Wetherilt. "In Defense of 'Poor Lo': National Indian Defense Association and Council Fire's Advocacy for Sioux Land Rights". South Dakota History 24, no.3/4 (Fall/Winter 1994): 153-173.
RG075

Bender, Norman J. "The Battle of Tierra Amarilla". New Mexico Historical Review 63, no.3 (July 1988): 241-256.
RG075

Bennett, Colin. "Compacts and Compromises: Thomas S. Twiss and West Point Influence in the Antebellum South Carolina College". South Carolina Historical Magazine 109, no.1 (January 2008): 7-37.
RG029/RG075/RG094/RG107

Benson, Megan. "The Fight for Crow Water, Part II: Damming the Bighorn". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 58, no.1 (Spring 2008): 3-23.
RG075/RG115

Benson, Megan. "The Fight for Crow Water: The Early Reservation Years through the Indian New Deal". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 57, no.4 (Winter 2007): 24-42.
RG021/RG075/RG115

Benson, Todd. "The Consequences of Reservation Life: Native Californians on the Round Valley Reservation, 1871-1884". Pacific Historical Review 60, no.2 (May 1991): 221-244.
RG075

Benton, Lee David. "On the Border of Indian Territory: The Oklahoma Adventures of William Queensbury". Chronicles of Oklahoma 62, no.2 (Summer 1984): 134-155.
RG075

Bergherm, Brent Gary. "The Little Osage Captive: The Tragic Saga of Lydia Carter". Arkansas Historical Quarterly 62, no.2 (Summer 2003): 123-152.
RG075

Berthrong, Donald J. "From Buffalo Days to Classrooms: The Southern Cheyennes and Arapahos and Kansas". Kansas History 12, no.2 (Summer 1989): 101-113.
RG075/RG108/Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency Records, NARA-Southwest Region

Berthrong, Donald J. "Legacies of the Dawes Act: Bureaucrats and Land Theives at the Cheyenne-Arapaho Agencies of Oklahoma". Arizona and the West 21, no.4 (Winter 1979): 335-354.
RG075

Berthrong, Donald J. "Struggle for Power: The Impact of Southern Cheyenne and Arapaho 'Schoolboys' on Tribal Politics". American Indian Quarterly 16, no.1 (Winter 1992): 1-24.
RG075

Bess, Jennifer. "More Than a Food Fight: Intellectual Traditions and Cultural Continuity in Chilocco's Indian School Journal, 1902-1918". American Indian Quarterly 37, no.1-2 (Winter-Spring 2013): 77-110.
RG075

Bess, Jennifer. "The New Egypt, Pima Cotton, and the Role of Native Wage Labor on the Cooperative Testing and Demonstration Farm, Sacaton, Arizona, 1907-1917". Agricultural History 88, no.4 (Fall 2014): 491-516.
RG075

Bess, Jennifer. "The Price of Pima Cotton: The Cooperative Testing and Demonstration Farm at Sacaton, Arizona, and the Decline of the Pima Agricultural Economy, 1907-1920". Western Historical Quarterly 46, no.2 (Summer 2015): 171-189.
RG054/RG075

Bieder, Robert E. "Sault Ste. Marie and the War of 1812: A World Turned Upside Down in the Old Northwest". Indiana Magazine of History 95, no.1 (March 1999): 1-13.
RG075

Bieloh, Christina. "Bad Water and Epidemics: The Wages of Neglect at the Seneca Indian School". Chronicles of Oklahoma 87, no.1 (Spring 2009): 56-75.
RG075

Bigart, Robert. "'Charlot loves his people': The Defeat of Bitterroot Salish Aspirations for an Independent Bitterroot Valley Community". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 60, no.1 (Spring 2010): 24-44.
RG075/RG094

Bigart, Robert. "St. Ignatius Mission, Montana Reports from Two Jesuit Missionaries, 1885 + 1900-1901, Part 1". Arizona and the West 23, no.2 (Summer 1981): 149-172.
RG075

Bigart, Robert. "The Travails of Flathead Indian Agent Charles S. Medary, 1875-1877". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 62, no.3 (Autumn 2012): 27-41.
RG075

Bigglestone, William E. "Oberlin College and Beginning of the Red Lake Mission". Minnesota History 45, no.1 (Spring 1976): 21-31.
RG075

Bigler, David L. "Garland Hurt, the American Friend of the Utahs". Utah Historical Quarterly 62, no.2 (Spring 1994): 149-170.
RG075

Bilka, Monica. "Klamath Tribal Persistence, State Resistance: Treaty Rights Activism, the Threat of Tribal Sovereignty, and Collaborative Natural Resource Management in the Pacific Northwest, 1954-1981". Western Historical Quarterly 48, no.3 (Autumn 2017): 255-275.
RG075

Biolsi, Thomas. "'Indian Self-Government' as a Technique of Domination". American Indian Quarterly 15, no.1 (Winter 1991): 23-37.
RG075

Birk, Douglas A., and Bruce M. White. "Who Wrote the 'Diary of Thomas Connor'?". Minnesota History 46, no.5 (Spring 1979): 170-188.
RG075/RG217

Bolton, Charles S. "Jeffersonian Indian Removal and the Emergence of Arkansas Territory". Arkansas Historical Quarterly 62, no.3 (Autumn 2003): 253-271.
RG075

Booth, Peter MacMillan. "'If We Gave Up the Making of Nawait, It Would Mean Starvation': Saguaro Wine Defenders of Tohono O'odham Land and Way-of-Life". Journal of Arizona History 46, no.4 (Winter 2005): 375-396.
RG075

Bowden, David. "Toll Roads and Railroads: A Case of Economic Conflict in the Choctaw Nation, 1870-1876". Chronicles of Oklahoma 74, no.4 (Winter 1996-97): 384-397.
RG075

Bowes, John P. "The Gnadenhutten Effect: Moravian Converts and the Search for Safety in the Canadian Borderlands". Michigan Historical Review 34, no.1 (Spring 2008): 101-117.
RG075

Brady, Benjamin R. and Howard M. Bahr. "The Influenza Epidemic of 1918-1920 among the Navajos". American Indian Quarterly 38, no.4 (Fall 2014): 459-491.
RG075

Brand, Lauren. "'Great Conceptions of Their Own Power': Native and U.S. Diplomacy in the Old Southwest". Western Historical Quarterly 47, no.3 (Autumn 2016): 261-281.
RG075

Bray, Kingsley M. "'We Belong to the North': The Flights of the Northern Indians from the White River Agencies, 1877-1878". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 55, no.2 (Summer 2005): 28-47.
RG054/RG075/RG094

Bray, Kingsley M. "Before Sitting Bull: Interpreting Hunkpapa Political History, 1750-1867". South Dakota History 40, no.2 (Summer 2010): 97-135.
RG075/RG393

Bray, Kingsley M. "Crazy Horse and the End of the Great Sioux Wars". Nebraska History 79, no.3 (Fall 1998): 94-115.
RG075/RG094/RG098

Bray, Kingsley M. "Lone Horn's Peace: A New View of Sioux-Crow Relations, 1851-1858". Nebraska History 66, no.1 (Spring 1985): 28-47.
RG075

Bray, Kingsley M. "Spotted Tail and the Treaty of 1868". Nebraska History 83, no.1 (Spring 2002): 19-35.
RG048/RG075

Bray, Kingsley M. "Teton Sioux Population History, 1655-1881". Nebraska History 75, no.2 (Summer 1994): 165-188.
RG075/RG094

Bremer, Richard G. "Henry Rowe Schoolcraft: Explorer in the Mississippi Valley, 1818-1832". Wisconsin Magazine of History 66, no.1 (Autumn 1982): 40-59.
RG075

Breu, Mary. "Pioneer and Prisoner: Etta Jones in Alaska". Alaska History 18, no.1-2 (Spring/Fall 2003): 1-10.
RG075

Brigham, Jay. "Lighting the Reservation: The Impact of the Rural Electrification Administration on Native Lands". Journal of the West 40, no.1 (Winter 2001): 81-88.
RG075/RG221

Bromert, Roger. "Sioux Rehabilitation Colonies: Experiments in Self-Sufficiency, 1936-1942". South Dakota History 14, no.1 (Spring 1984): 31-47.
RG075

Bromert, Roger. "The Sioux and the Indian-CCC". South Dakota History 8, no.4 (Fall 1978): 340-356.
RG075

Bryson, Thomas A. "The Federal Career of Walter George Smith". Prologue 4, no.3 (Fall 1972): 157-160.
RG043/RG059/RG075

Buecker, Thomas R., and R. Eli Paul. "Go South and Be Free: John W. Williamson's Account of the Pawnee Removal". Chronicles of Oklahoma 65, no.2 (Summer 1987): 132-159.
RG075

Buecker, Thomas R., and R. Eli Paul. "Go South and Be Free: Part II: John W. Williamson's Account of the Pawnee Removal". Chronicles of Oklahoma 65, no.3 (Fall 1987): 294-318.
RG075

Buice, David. "Lincoln's Unissued Proclamation". Prologue 10, no.3 (Fall 1978): 152-169.
RG048/RG075

Burch, Susan. "Disorderly Pasts: Kinship, Diagnoses, and Remembering in American Indian-U.S. Histories". Journal of Social History 50, no.2 (Winter 2016): 362-385.
RG029/RG075

Burt, Larry W. "Factories on Reservations: The Industrial Development Programs of Commissioner Glenn Emmons, 1953-1960". Arizona and the West 19, no.4 (Winter 1977): 317-332.
RG075

Burt, Larry. "Nowhere Left to Go: Montana's Crees, Metis, and Chippewas and the Creation of Rocky Boy's Reservation". Great Plains Quarterly 7, no.3 (Summer 1987): 195-209.
RG075

Butler, Stuart L. and Graeme McCluggage. "Taking Measure of America: Records in the Cartographic and Architectural Branch". Prologue 23, no.1 (Spring 1991): 41-57.
RG019/RG023/RG026/RG028/RG029/ RG037/RG042/RG046/RG048/RG049/ RG054/RG057/RG066/RG074/RG075/ RG076/RG077/RG083/RG092/RG096/ RG114/RG115/RG121/RG145/RG196/ RG233/RG241/RG313/RG328/RG331/ RG370/RG373/RG393/RG456

Butts, Michele T. "Trading Gray for Blue: Ex-Confederates Hold the Upper Missouri for the Union". Prologue 37, no.4 (Winter 2005): 14-21.
Online version
RG077/RG075/RG094/RG109/RG111/RG200/RG393

Cadava, Geraldo L. "Borderlands of Modernity and Abandonment: The Lines within Ambos Nogales and the Tohono O'odham Nation". Journal of American History 98, no.2 (September 2011): 362-383.
RG075

Cain, Ellen. "'The Golden Days': Taylor and Mary Ealy, Citizenship, and the Freedmen of Chickasaw Indian Territory, 1874-77". Chronicles of Oklahoma 92, no.1 (Spring 2014): 54-77.
RG075

Cain, Ellen. "A Window on Zuni: Taylor F. Ealy and Missionary Labor in New Mexico, 1878-1881". New Mexico Historical Review 88, no.4 (Fall 2013): 375-411.
RG075

Calitri, Shannon Smith. "'Give Me Eighty Men': Shattering the Myth of the Fetterman Massacre". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 54, no.3 (Autumn 2004): 44-59.
RG015/RG075/RG111/RG153

Camp, Gregory S. "The Dispossessed: The Ojibwa and the Metis of Northwest North Dakota". North Dakota History 69, no.2/3/4 (2002): 62-79.
RG048/RG075

Campbell, Gregory R. "Changing Patterns of Health and Effective Fertility among the Northern Cheyenne of Montana, 1886-1903". American Indian Quarterly 15, no.3 (Summer 1991): 339-358.
RG075

Campbell, Gregory. "The Lemhi Shoshoni: Ethnogenesis, Sociological Transformations, and the Construction of a Tribal Nation". American Indian Quarterly 25, no.4 (Fall 2001): 539-578.
RG075

Campbell, Robert B. "Newlands, Old Lands: Native American Labor, Agrarian Ideology, and the Progressive-Era State in the Making of the Newlands Reclamation Project, 1902-1926". Pacific Historical Review 71, no.2 (May 2002): 203-238.
RG029/RG075/RG115

Canfield, Amy E. "'The Wheels of Progress Must Not Be Closed:' The 1902 Land Rush on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation". Journal of the West 46, no.4 (Fall 2007): 55-61.
RG075

Carpenter, Marc James. "'Justice and Fair Play for the American Indian': Harry Lane, Robert Hamilton, and a Vision of Native American Modernity". Pacific Historical Review 87, no.2 (Spring 2018): 305-332.
RG075

Carriker, Robert C. "The Kalispel Tribe and the Indian Claims Commission Experience". Western Historical Quarterly 9, no.1 (January 1978): 19-31.
RG046/RG279

Carson, James Taylor. "Greenwood LeFlore: Southern Creole, Choctaw Chief". Journal of Mississippi History 65, no.4 (Winter 2003): 355-373.
RG075

Carson, James Taylor. "Native Americans, the Market Revolution, and Culture Change: The Choctaw Cattle Economy, 1690-1830". Agricultural History 71, no.1 (Winter 1997): 1-18.
RG075

Carter, Kent. "A Faithful Public Servant: J. George Wright and the Five Civilized Tribes". Chronicles of Oklahoma 81, no.1 (Spring 2003): 54-77.
RG021/RG048/RG075

Carter, Kent. "Choctaw-Chickasaw Enrollment". Prologue 31, no.4 (Winter 1999): 231-245.
RG048/RG075

Carter, Kent. "Choctaw-Chickasaw Enrollment, Part 2". Prologue 32, no.1 (Spring 2000): 6-22.
RG021/R048/RG075

Carter, Kent. "Deciding Who Can Be Cherokee: Enrollment Records of the Dawes Commission". Chronicles of Oklahoma 69, no.2 (Summer 1991): 174-205.
RG075

Carter, Kent. "Federal Indian Policy: Cherokee Enrollment, 1898-1907". Prologue 23, no.1 (Spring 1991): 24-38.
RG021/RG075

Carter, Kent. "Federal Indian Policy: The Dawes Commission, 1887-1898". Prologue 22, no.4 (Winter 1990): 339-349.
RG075

Carter, Kent. "Oklahoma History: In Texas? The Fort Worth Branch of the National Archives". Chronicles of Oklahoma 64, no.1 (Spring 1986): 84-95.
RG021/RG029/RG030/RG049/RG057/ RG075/RG077/RG079/RG114/RG118/ RG138/RG237/RG387/RG406

Carter, Kent. "Snakes & Scribes: The Dawes Commission and the Enrollment of the Creeks". Prologue 29, no.1 (Spring 1997): 28-41.
Online version
RG021/RG048/RG075

Carter, Kent. "Snakes and Scribes: The Dawes Commission and the Enrollment of the Creeks". Chronicles of Oklahoma 75, no.4 (Winter 1997-98): 384-413.
RG075

Carter, Kent. "Tams Bixby: Doing Government Business in the Gilded Age". Chronicles of Oklahoma 88, no.4 (Winter 2000-2001): 412-443.
RG021/RG029/RG048/RG075/RG200

Carter, Kent. "Wantabees and Outalucks: Searching for Indian Ancestors in Federal Records". Chronicles of Oklahoma 66, no.1 (Spring 1988): 94-104.
RG029/RG075/RG123/RG360

Carter, L. Edward. "The Seminoles after Leaving Florida, 1855-1860". Chronicles of Oklahoma 60, no.4 (Winter 1977-1978): 433-453.
RG075

Caylor, Ann. "'A Promise Long Deferred': Federal Reclamation on the Colorado River Indian Reservation". Pacific Historical Review 69, no.2 (May 2000): 193-215.
RG075/RG279

Chamberlain, Kathleen P. "In the Shadow of Billy the Kid: Susan McSween and the Lincoln County War". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 55, no.4 (Winter 2005): 36-53.
RG075/NARA photos

Chang, David A. "Borderlands in a World at Sea: Concow Indians, Native Hawaiians, and South Chinese in Indigenous, Global, and National Spaces". Journal of American History 98, no.2 (September 2011): 384-403.
RG029/RG075/RG085

Chapman, B. B. "Cherokee Allotments in the Outlet". Chronicles of Oklahoma 59, no.4 (Winter 1981-1982): 401-421.
RG048/RG049/RG075

Chaput, Donald. "The Family of Drouet de Richerville: Merchants, Soldiers, and Chiefs of Indians". Indiana Magazine of History 74, no.2 (June 1978): 103-116.
RG075

Cheatham, Gary L. "'If the Union Wins, We Won't Have Anything Left': The Rise and Fall of the Southern Cherokees of Kansas". Kansas History 30, no.3 (Autumn 2007): 154-177.
RG075/RG109/RG123

Cheatham, Gary L. "'Kansas Shall Not Have the Right to Legislate Slavery Out': Slavery and the 1860 Antislavery Law". Kansas History 23, no.3 (Autumn 2000): 154-171.
RG021/RG059/RG075

Cheatham, Gary L. "'Within the Limits of the Southern Confederacy': The CSA's Interest in the Quapaw, Osage, and Cherokee Tribal Lands of Kansas". Kansas History 26, no.3 (Autumn 2003): 172-185.
RG075/RG109

Christianson, James R. "The Early Osage-'The Ishmaelites of the Savages'". Kansas History 11, no.1 (Spring 1988): 2-12.
RG075

Clark, Jerry L. "Thus Spoke Chief Seattle: The Story of an Undocumented Speech". Prologue 17, no.1 (Spring 1985): 58-65.
Online version
RG075

Clark, Keith and Donna Clark. "William McKay's Journal, 1866-67: Indian Scouts, Part I". Oregon Historical Quarterly 79, no.2 (Summer 1978): 120-171.
RG075/RG092/RG094/RG111/RG393

Clark, Keith and Donna Clark. "William McKay's Journal, 1866-67: Indian Scouts, Part II". Oregon Historical Quarterly 79, no.3 (Fall 1978): 268-333.
RG075/RG092/RG393

Clark, Wahnne C. "The Grand Celebration: An Indian Delegation to Washington". Chronicles of Oklahoma 66, no.2 (Summer 1988): 192-205.
RG075/RG217

Clemmons, Linda M. "'Leagued together': Adapting Traditional Forms of Resistance to Protest ABCFM Missionaries and the Treaty of 1837". South Dakota History 37, no.2 (Summer 2007): 95-124.
RG075

Clow, Richmond L. "'A Flagrant Outrage': James McLaughlin, Indian Country, and Illegal Bison Hunting". North Dakota History 71, no.3-4 (2004): 2-18.
RG060/RG075

Clow, Richmond L. "'We Do Not Always Agree': Eugene Little, the Indian New Deal, and Changing Rosebud Leadership". South Dakota History 33, no.2 (Summer 2003): 155-179.
RG029/RG075/RG094

Clow, Richmond L. "A Dream Deferred: Crow Dog's Territorial Trials and the Push for Statehood". South Dakota History 37, no.1 (Spring 2007): 46-73.
RG075

Clow, Richmond L. "A Hesitant Second". American Indian Quarterly 15, no.1 (Winter 1991): 39-43.
RG075/RG046

Clow, Richmond L. "General Philip Sheridan's Legacy: The Sioux Pony Campaign of 1876". Nebraska History 57, no.4 (Winter 1976): 461-477.
RG048/RG075/RG094/RG393

Clow, Richmond L. "Justice in Transition: The Murder Trial of Straight Head and Scares the Hawk". South Dakota History 27, no.3 (Fall 1997): 133-155.
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Clow, Richmond L. "Mad Bear: William S. Harney and the Sioux Expedition of 1885-1856". Nebraska History 61, no.2 (Summer 1980): 133-151.
RG075/RG094/RG393

Clow, Richmond L. "The Anatomy of a Lakota Shooting: Crow Dog and Spotted Tail, 1879-1881". South Dakota History 28, no.4 (Winter 1998): 209-226.
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Clow, Richmond L. "The Indian Reorganization Act and the Loss of Tribal Sovereignty: Constitutions on the Rosebud and Pine Ridge Reservations". Great Plains Quarterly 7, no.2 (Spring 1987): 125-134.
RG075

Clow, Richmond L. "The Sioux Nation and Indian Territory The Attempted Removal of 1876". South Dakota History 6, no.4 (Fall 1976): 456-473.
RG075

Clow, Richmond L. "The Whetstone Indian Agency, 1868-1872". South Dakota History 77, no.3 (Summer 1977): 291-308.
RG075/RG094

Clow, Richmond. "Bison Ecology, Brul and Yankton Winter Hunting, and the Starving Winter of 1832-33". Great Plains Quarterly 15, no.4 (Fall 1995): 259-270.
RG075

Cobb, Daniel M. "Devils in Disguise: The Carnegie Project, the Cherokee Nation, and the 1960s". AIQ: American Indian Quarterly 31, no.3 (2007): 465-490.
RG075/RG381

Colbert, Thomas Burnell. "'The Lion of the Land': James B. Weaver, Kansas, and the Oklahoma Lands, 1884-1890". Kansas History 31, no.3 (Autumn 2008): 176-193.
RG075

Colbert, Thomas Burnell. "Visionary or Rogue? The Life and Legacy of Elias Cornelius Boudinot". Chronicles of Oklahoma 65, no.3 (Fall 1987): 268-281.
RG075/RG094

Cole, D. C. "Reorganization, Consolidation, and the Expropriation of the Chiricahua Apache Reservation". Indian Historian 10, no.2 (Spring 1977): 3-7.
RG075

Coleman, Louis. "The Choctaw Chief's House: Oral Tradition and Historical Inaccuracies". Chronicles of Oklahoma 81, no.4 (Winter 2003-04): 492-501.
RG075

Collins, Cary C. "The Broken Crucible of Assimilation: Forest Grove Indian School and the Origins of Off-Reservation Boarding-School Education in the West". Oregon Historical Quarterly 101, no.4 (Fall 2000): 466-507.
RG075/RG094

Collins, Cary C. "Through the Lens of Assimilation: Edwin L. Chalcraft and Chemawa Indian School". Oregon Historical Quarterly 98, no.4 (Winter 1997-98): 390-425.
RG048/RG075/Chalcraft Papers - Pacific Northwest Region

Collins, James P. "Native Americans in the Antebellum U.S. Military". Prologue 39, no.4 (Winter 2007): 46-51.
Online version
RG015/RG075/RG093/RG094

Colwell-Chanthaphonh, Chip. "Western Apache Oral Histories and Traditions of the Camp Grant Massacre". American Indian Quarterly 27, no.3/4 (Summer/Fall 2003): 639-666.
RG075/RG393

Conser, Walter H., Jr. "John Ross and the Cherokee Resistance Campaign, 1833-1838". Journal of Southern History 44, no.2 (May 1978): 191-212.
RG075

Constantino, Carlyle. "Emerging from the Archive: Helen M. Post's Photographs of Twentieth-Century Navajos". Utah Historical Quarterly 87, no.4 (Fall 2019): 316-332.
RG075

Corbett, William P. "Pipestone: The Origin and Development of a National Monument". Minnesota History 47, no.3 (Fall 1980): 83-92.
RG075/RG079

Corbett, William P. "The Red Pipestone Quarry: The Yanktons Defend a Sacred Tradition, 1858-1929". South Dakota History 8, no.2 (Spring 1978): 99-116.
RG075

Cox, Thomas R. "Tribal Leadership in Transition: Chief Peter Moctelme of the Coeur d'Alenes". Idaho Yesterdays 23, no.1 (Spring 1979): 2-9, 25-31.
RG075

Cox, Thomas R. "Weldon Heyburn, Lake Chatcolet, and the Evolving Concept of Public Parks". Idaho Yesterdays 24, no.2 (Summer 1980): 2-17.
RG075/RG079

Cramer, Harry G., III. "Tom Jeffords - Indian Agent". Journal of Arizona History 17, no.3 (Autumn 1976): 265-300.
RG048/RG075/RG094

Crum, Steven J. "Henry Roe Cloud, a Winnebago Indian Reformer: His Quest for American Indian Higher Education". Kansas History 11, no.3 (Autumn 1988): 171-184.
RG075

Crum, Steven J. "One Succeeded, One Did Not: Bacone College and the Oklahoma Presbyterian College, 1910-1980". Chronicles of Oklahoma 91, no.1 (Spring 2013): 40-61.
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Crum, Steven J. "Pretending They Didn't Exist: The Timbisha Shoshone Tribe of Death Valley, California and the Death Valley National Monument up to 1933". Southern California Quarterly 84, no.3-4 (2002): 223-240.
RG075/RG079

Crum, Steven J. "The 'Rise and Fall' of Indian Colleges in Indian Territory: Indian University, Henry Kendall College, and Other Colleges, 1880-1907". Chronicles of Oklahoma 93, no.1 (Spring 2015): 4-29.
RG075

Crum, Steven J. "The 'White Pine War' of 1875: A Case of White Hysteria". Utah Historical Quarterly 59, no.3 (Summer 1991): 286-299.
RG075/RG094

Crum, Steven J. "The Skull Valley Band of the Goshute Tribe - Deeply Attached to Their Native Homeland". Utah Historical Quarterly 55, no.3 (Summer 1987): 250-267.
RG075

Crum, Steven. "Bizzell and Brandt: Pioneers in Indian Studies". Chronicles of Oklahoma 66, no.2 (Summer 1988): 178-191.
RG075

Cruse, J. Brett. "Archaeological Investigations at the Battle of Red River Site: New Perspectives on the 1874 Indian Campaign in the Texas Panhandle". Southwestern Historical Quarterly 106, no.2 (October 2002): 168-192.
RG075/RG094/RG393

Cumfer, Cynthia. "Local Origins of National Indian Policy: Cherokee and Tennessean Ideas about Sovereignty and Nationhood, 1790-1811". Journal of the Early Republic 23, no.1 (Spring 2003): 21-46.
RG075/RG233

Daddario, Wilma A. "'They Get Milk Practically Every Day,' the Genoa Indian Industrial School, 1884-1934". Nebraska History 73, no.1 (Spring 1992): 2-11.
RG075

Daggar, Lori J. "The Mission Complex: Economic Development, 'Civilization,' and Empire in the Early Republic". Journal of the Early Republic 36, no.3 (Fall 2016): 467-491.
RG075/RG107

Dailey, Martha LaCroix. "Symbolism and Significance of the Lincoln Canes for the Pueblos of New Mexico". New Mexico Historical Review 69, no.2 (April 1994): 127-144.
RG075

Dalstrom, Harl A. and Kay Calame Dalstrom. "It's 'Going Down in History': The Blizzards of 1949". South Dakota History 29, no.4 (Winter 1999): 263-326.
RG075/RG200

Daly, Heather Ponchetti. "Fractured Relations at Home: The 1953 Termination Act's Effect on Tribal Relations throughout Southern California Indian Country". American Indian Quarterly 33, no.4 (Fall 2009): 427-439.
RG075

Danziger, Edmund J. "The Office of Indian Affairs and the Problem of Civil War Indian Refugees in Kansas". Kansas Historical Quarterly 35, no.3 (Autumn 1969): 257-275.
RG048/RG075/RG098

Danziger, Edmund J., Jr. "The Indian Office during the Civil War: Impotence in Indian Affairs". South Dakota History 5, no.1 (Winter 1974): 52-72.
RG075/RG098

Dauber, Kenneth. "Pueblo Pottery and the Politics of Regional Identity". Journal of the Southwest 32, no.4 (Winter 1990): 576-596.
RG075

Davies, Wade. "'We are looking for a splendid tournament here': Sharon Mote's Quest to Promote Indian-School Basketball, 1927-1929". South Dakota History 41, no.2 (Summer 2011): 199-225.
RG075

DeCorey, Anne. "Edgar Beecher Bronson, Nebraska's 'Ranchman'". Nebraska History 81, no.3 (Fall 2000): 106-115.
RG075/NARA photos

Deeben, John P. "Native Americans on the Trail of Tears: Part I - Census Rolls Relating to Indian Removals, 1817-57". NGS Magazine 39, no.3 (July-September 2013): 38-42.
RG075

Deeben, John P. "Native Americans on the Trail of Tears: Part II - Emigration Lists and Reservation Applications, 1817-57". NGS Magazine 39, no.4 (October-December 2013): 37-40.
RG075

Dejong, David H. "'Abandoned Little by Little:' The 1914 Pima Adjudication Survey, Water Deprivation, and Farming on the Pima Reservation". Agricultural History 81, no.1 (Winter 2007): 36-69.
RG075

DeJong, David H. "'The Granary of Arizona': The Civil War, Settlers, and Pima-Maricopa Agriculture, 1860-1869". Journal of Arizona History 48, no.3 (Autumn 2007): 221-256.
RG075/RG109/RG393

DeJong, David H. "'Unless They Are Kept Alive:' Federal Indian Schools and Student Health, 1878-1918". AIQ: American Indian Quarterly 31, no.2 (Spring 2007): 256-282.
RG048/RG075

DeJong, David H. "A Scheme to Rob Them of Their Land: Water, Allotment, and the Economic Integration of the Pima Reservation, 1902-1921". Journal of Arizona History 44, no.2 (Summer 2003): 99-132.
RG075

DeJong, David H. "An Equal Chance?: The Pima Indians and the 1916 Florence-Casa Grande Irrigation Project". Journal of Arizona History 45, no.1 (Spring 2004): 63-102.
RG075

DeJong, David H. "Arizona: 'Advantageous to the Indians?' The Overland Mail Routes and the Establishment of the Pima Indian Reservation, 1852-1860". Journal of the West 45, no.3 (Summer 2006): 17-33.
RG075/RG393

Dejong, David H. "Navigating the Maze: The Gile River Indian Community Water Settlement Act of 2004 and Administrative Challenges". AIQ 38, no.1 (Winter 2014): 60-81.
RG075

Demuth, Bathsheba. "The Walrus and the Bureaucrat: Energy, Ecology, and Making the State in the Russian and American Arctic, 1870-1950". American Historical Review 124, no.2 (April 2019): 483-510.
RG022/RG048/RG075

Denison, Brandi. "Dirt and Morality during Ute Removal". Pacific Historical Review 88, no.1 (Winter 2019): 127-154.
RG075

Denson, Andrew. "'Unite with Us to Rescue the Kiowas': The Five Civilized Tribes and Warfare on the Southern Plains". Chronicles of Oklahoma 81, no.4 (Winter 2003-04): 458-479.
RG075/RG094/RG233

Denson, Andrew. "A Few Unreasonable Proposals: Some Rejected Ideas from the Cherokee Allotment Negotiations". Chronicles of Oklahoma 84, no.4 (Winter 2006-07): 426-443.

Denson, Andrew. "Muskogee's Indian International Fairs: Tribal Autonomy and the Indian Image in the Late Nineteenth Century". Western Historical Quarterly 34, no.3 (Autumn 2003): 323-345.
RG046/RG075/RG233

Dewberry, Suzanne J. "San Diego: Historical Resources of the Federal Government in the National Archives Pacific Southwest Region". Journal of San Diego History 38, no.2 (Spring 1992): 112-128.
RG021/RG026/RG036/RG041/RG075/RG181/RMN Library

Dickson, Ephriam D., III. "The Sitting Bull Surrender Census, Standing Rock Agency, 1881". South Dakota History 40, no.2 (Summer 2010): 163-196.
RG075/RG393

Diedrich, Mark. "Chief Hole-in-the-Day and the 1862 Chippewa Disturbance: A Reappraisal". Minnesota History 50, no.5 (Spring 1987): 193-203.
RG075

Dinwoodie, David H. "Indians, Hispanos, and Land Reform: A New Deal Struggle in New Mexico". Western Historical Quarterly 17, no.3 (July 1986): 291-323.
RG016/RG048/RG049/RG075/RG096/RG114

Dobak, William A. "Killing the Canadian Buffalo, 1821-1881". Western Historical Quarterly 27, no.1 (Spring 1996): 33-52.
RG075

Dobyns, Henry F. and Robert C. Euler. "The Dunn-Howland Killings: Additional Insights". Journal of Arizona History 21, no.1 (Spring 1980): 87-95.
RG075/RG094

Doerr, Brian M. "The Massacre at Deer Lick Creek, Madison County, Indiana, 1824". Indiana Magazine of History 43, no.1 (March 1997): 19-47.
RG075

Doherty, Robert. "Old-Time Origins of Modern Sovereignty: State Building among the Keweenaw Bay Ojibway, 1832-1854". AIQ: American Indian Quarterly 31, no.1 (2007): 165-187.
RG075

Dollar, Charles M. "Computers, the National Archives, and Researchers". Prologue 8, no.1 (Spring 1976): 29-34.
RG075

Dollar, Clyde D. "The High Plains Smallpox Epidemic of 1837-38". Western Historical Quarterly 8, no.1 (January 1977): 15-38.
RG075

Doran, Michael F. "Population Statistics of Nineteenth Century Indian Territory". Chronicles of Oklahoma 53, no.4 (Winter 1975-1976): 492-515.
RG075

Dougherty, John J. "'Talk the Language of the Larger World': Fishing Wars, Natural Resources, and the Birth of the Sovereignty Movement in the Postwar Pacific Northwest". Western Legal History 27, no.1 (Winter-Spring 2014): 57-89.
RG075

Drake, Ella Wells. "A Choctaw Academy Education: The Apalachicola Experience, 1830-1833". Florida Historical Quarterly 78, no.3 (Winter 2000): 289-308.
RG075

Drury, Clifford M. "Lawyer, Head Chief of the Nez Perce 1848-1875". Idaho Yesterdays 22, no.4 (Winter 1979): 2-15, 18-24.
RG033/RG075

Ducker, James H. "Curriculum for a New Culture: A Case Study of Schools and Alaska Natives, 1884-1947". Pacific Northwest Quarterly 91, no.2 (Spring 2000): 71-83.
RG075/RG348

Ducker, John. "Reindeer Rescue: The 1898 Reindeer Drive to Barrow". Alaska History 20, no.1 (Spring 2005): 1-23.
RG075

Dudley, Shelly. "Pima Indians, Water Rights, and the Federal Government: U.S. v. Gila Valley Irrigation District". Western Legal History 26, no.1-2 (2013): 133-158.
RG048/RG060/RG075

Duffield, Lathel F. "Cherokee Emigration: Reconstructing Reality". Chronicles of Oklahoma 80, no.3 (Fall 2002): 314-347.
RG075

Dungan, Ron. "Cattle and Constitutions: James Kitch and the Indian New Deal on the San Carlos Apache Reservation". Journal of Arizona History 36, no.2 (1995): 135-150.
RG075

Dungan, Ron. "He Is Constantly Angry: Eshkeldahsilah, White Mountain Apache Chief". New Mexico Historical Review 81, no.2 (Spring 2006): 175-198.
RG075/RG093

Dunlay, Thomas William. "Indian Allies in the Armies of New Spain and the United States: A Comparative Study". New Mexico Historical Review 56, no.3 (July 1981): 239-258.
RG075

DuVal, Kathleen. "Choosing Enemies: The Prospects for an Anti-American Alliance in the Louisiana Territory". Arkansas Historical Quarterly 62, no.3 (Autumn 2003): 233-252.
RG075

DuVal, Kathleen. "Debating Identity, Sovereignty, and Civilization: The Arkansas Valley after the Louisiana Purchase". Journal of the Early Republic 26, no.1 (Spring 2006): 25-58.
RG075

Dye, Karen. "Politics and Greed? Allotments and Town Building Schemes in the Cherokee Outlet". Chronicles of Oklahoma 73, no.3 (Fall 1995): 308-321.
RG048/RG075

Ebright, Malcolm. "Benjamin Thomas in New Mexico, 1872-1883: Indian Agents as Advocates for Native Americans". New Mexico Historical Review 93, no.3 (Summer 2018): 303-338.
RG029/RG075

Ebright, Malcolm. "Making Water Run Uphill: The Mora Acequias de la Sierra vs. Picuris Pueblo A Tale of Two Watersheds and the Mora Land Grant". New Mexico Historical Review 92, no.2 (Spring 2017): 117-155.
RG075

Echo-Hawk, Roger C. "Ancient History in the New World: Integrating Oral Traditions and the Archaeological Record in Deep Time". American Antiquity 65, no.2 (April 2000): 267-290.
RG075

Edmunds, R. David. "'Designing Men, Seeking a Fortune': Indian Traders and the Potawatomi Claims Payment of 1836". Indiana Magazine of History 77, no.2 (June 1981): 109-123.
RG059/RG075

Edmunds, R. David. "Justice on a Changing Frontier: Deer Lick Creek, 1824-1825". Indiana Magazine of History 43, no.1 (March 1997): 48-52.
RG075/RG107

Edmunds, R. David. "Potawatomis in the Platte Country: An Indian Removal". Missouri Historical Review 68, no.4 (July 1974): 375-392.
RG075

Edmunds, R. David. "Shells That Ring for Shadows on Her Face: Potawatomi Commerce in the Old Northwest". Wisconsin Magazine of History 76, no.3 (Spring 1993): 162-179.
RG075/RG107

Ehrenberg, Ralph E. "Sketch of Part of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers with a Description of the Country and &c". Prologue 3, no.2 (Spring 1971): 73-78.
RG075/RG092/RG107

Ehrenhalt, Lizzie. "'The Most Satisfactory Proof': Revising an Anglo-Dakota Family History". Minnesota History 63, no.4 (Winter 2012-13): 144-155.
RG075

Ehrlander, Mary F. "Edward Anton and Jenny Olson Rasmuson: Swedish Covenant Missionaries at Yakutat". Alaska History 28, no.1 (Spring 2013): 40-61.
RG075

Ellinghaus, Katherine. "'A Little Home for Myself and Child': The Women of the Quiapaw Agency and the Policy of Competency". Pacific Historical Review 84, no.3 (August 2015): 307-332.
RG075

Ellinghaus, Katherine. "George Newkirk Jr.'s Cafe, Competency, and Settler Colonialism". Journal of the West 56, no.4 (Fall 2017): 25-35.
RG075

Ellinghaus, Katherine. "The Moment of Release: The Ideology of Protection and the Twentieth-Century Assimilation Policies of Exemption and Competency in New South Wales and Oklahoma". Pacific Historical Review 87, no.1 (Winter 2018): 128-149.
RG075

Elliott, Jack D., Jr. "The Plymouth Fort and the Creek War: A Mystery Solved". Journal of Mississippi History 62, no.4 (Winter 2000): 328-370.
RG015/RG028/RG075/RG104/RG217

Elliott, Jack D., Jr. "Three Chopped Way and the Representations of Yesteryear". Journal of Mississippi History 61, no.3 (Fall 1999): 213-234.
RG075/RG107

Ellis, Clyde. "'There Is No Doubt. the Dances Should Be Curtailed': Indian Dances and Federal Policy on the Southern Plains, 1880-1930". Pacific Historical Review 70, no.4 (November 2001): 543-569.
RG075

Ellis, Clyde. "Boarding School Life at the Kiowa-Comanche Agency, 1893-1920". Historian 58, no.4 (Summer 1996): 777-793.
RG075

Ellis, Clyde. "There Are So Many Things Needed: Establishing the Rainy Mountain Boarding School, 1891-1900". Chronicles of Oklahoma 72, no.4 (Winter 1994-95): 414-439.
RG075

Ellis, Mark R. "Reservation Akicitas: The Pine Ridge Indian Police, 1879-1885". South Dakota History 29, no.3 (Fall 1999): 185-210.
RG075/RG094

Ellis, Richard N. "'Indians at Ibapah in Revolt': Goshutes, the Draft and the Indian Bureau, 1917-1919". Nevada Historical Society Quarterly 19, no.3 (Fall 1976): 163-170.
RG021/RG060/RG075

Emmerich, Lisa E. "'Right in the Midst of My Own People': Native American Women and the Field Matron Program". American Indian Quarterly 15, no.2 (Spring 1991): 201-216.
RG075

Emmerich, Lisa E. "Marguerite LaFlesche Diddock: Office of Indian Affairs Field Matron". Great Plains Quarterly 13, no.3 (Summer 1993): 162-171.
RG075

Engh, Michael E. "Peter Paul Prando, S.J., 'Apostle of the Crows'". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 34, no.4 (Autumn 1984): 24-31.
RG075

Farr, William E. "'When We Were First Paid': The Blackfoot Treaty, the Western Tribes, and the Creation of the Common Hunting Ground, 1855". Great Plains Quarterly 21, no.2 (Spring 2001): 131-154.
RG075

Farr, William E. "Going to Buffalo: Indian Hunting Migrations across the Rocky Mountains. Part I: Making Meat and Taking Robes". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 53, no.4 (Winter 2003): 2-21.
RG075/RG393

Farr, William E. "Going to Buffalo Indian Hunting Migrations across the Rocky Mountains. Part II: Civilian Permits, Army Escorts". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 54, no.1 (Spring 2004): 26-43.
RG021/RG075/RG094/RG393

Farr, William E. "The End of Freedom: The Military Removal of the Blackfeet and Reservation Confinement, 1880". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 62, no.2 (Summer 2012): 3-23.
RG075

Farrell, Richard. "Promoting Agriculture Among the Indian Tribes of the Old Northwest, 1789-1820". Associates NAL Today n.s.3, no.1-2 (January-June 1978): 13-18.
RG075

Fearon, Peter. "Kansas History and the New Deal Era". Kansas History 30, no.3 (Autumn 2007): 192-223.
RG069/RG075

Feaver, Eric. "Indian Soldiers, 1891-95: An Experiment on the Closing Frontier". Prologue 7, no.2 (Summer 1975): 109-118.
RG075/RG094

Field, Les, Alan Leventhal, Dolores Sanchez, and Rosemary Cambra. "A Contemporary Ohlone Tribal Revitalization Movement: A Perspective from the Muwekma Costanoan/Ohlone Indians of the San Francisco Bay Area". California History 71, no.3 (Fall 1992): 412-431.
RG075

Fierst, John T. "Return to 'Civilization': John Tanner's Troubled Years at Sault Ste. Marie". Minnesota History 50, no.1 (Spring 1986): 23-36.
RG075

Finger, John R. "Termination and the Eastern Band of Cherokees". American Indian Quarterly 15, no.2 (Spring 1991): 153-170.
RG075

Finger, John R. "The Abortive Second Cherokee Removal, 1841-1844". Journal of Southern History 47, no.2 (May 1981): 207-226.
RG075

Fisher, Andrew H. "'This I Know from the Old People': Yakama Indian Treaty Rights as Oral Tradition". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 49, no.1 (Spring 1999): 2-17.
RG075

Fisher, Andrew H. "Tangled Nets: Treaty Rights and Tribal Identities at Celilo Falls". Oregon Historical Quarterly 105, no.2 (Summer 2004): 178-211.
RG021/RG075

Fisher, Andrew H. "The 1932 Handshake Agreement: Yakama Indian Treaty Rights and Forest Service Policy in the Pacific Northwest". Western Historical Quarterly 28, no.2 (Summer 1997): 186-217.
RG075

Fisher, Andrew H. "They Mean to Be Indian Always: The Origins of Columbia River Indian Identity, 1860-1885". Western Historical Quarterly 32, no.4 (Winter 2001): 468-492.
RG048/RG075

Fisher, Dexter. "Zitkala Sa: The Evolution of a Writer". American Indian Quarterly 5, no.3 (August 1979): 229-238.
RG075

Flores, Dan. "Bison Ecology and Bison Diplomacy: The Southern Plains from 1800 to 1850". Journal of American History 78, no.2 (September 1991): 465-485.
RG075

Foley, William E., and Charles David Rice. "The Return of the Mandan Chief". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 29, no.3 (July 1979): 2-15.
RG075

Foster, Martha Harroun. "'Just Following the Buffalo': Origins of a Montana Metis Community". Great Plains Quarterly 26, no.3 (Summer 2006): 185-202.
RG029/RG075

Fowler, Loretta. "Arapaho and Cheyenne Perspectives: From the 1851 Treaty to the Sand Creek Massacre". American Indian Quarterly 39, no.4 (Fall 2015): 364-390.
RG075

Franco, Jere. "Bringing Them in Alive: Selective Service and Native Americans". Journal of Ethnic Studies 18, no.3 (Fall 1990): 1-27.
RG075/RG147

Frank, Andrew K. "The Rise and Fall of William McIntosh: Authority and Identity on the Early American Frontier". Georgia Historical Quarterly 86, no.1 (2002): 18-48.
RG075

Franklin, Catharine R. "'If the Government Will Only . . . Fulfill Its Obligations': Colonel Benjamin Grierson, Rations Policy, and the Kiowa Indians, 1868-1872". Southwestern Historical Quarterly 118, no.2 (October 2014): 178-199.
RG075

Franz, William. "'To Live By Depredations': Main Poc's Strategic Use of Violence". Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 102, no.3-4 (Fall-Winter 2009): 238-247.
RG075/RG094

Frazer, Robert W. "Army Agriculture in New Mexico, 1852-53". New Mexico Historical Review 50, no.4 (October 1975): 313-334.
RG075/RG092/RG094/RG098

Fritz, Henry E. "Allotment of Mineral and Timber Lands on Indian Reservations and the Public Domain". Historian 67, no.4 (Winter 2005): 645-663.
RG048/RG049/RG075/RG079/RG233

Fritz, Henry E. "Humanitarian Rhetoric and Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Policy". Chronicles of Oklahoma 74, no.1 (Spring 2001): 62-91.
RG075/RG233

Fritz, Henry E. "The Last Hurrah of Christian Humanitarian Indian Reform: The Board of Indian Commissioners, 1909-1918". Western Historical Quarterly 16, no.2 (April 1985): 147-162.
RG075

Frizzell, George E. "The Politics of Cherokee Citizenship, 1898-1930". North Carolina Historical Review 61, no.2 (April 1984): 205-230.
RG075

Frost, Richard H. "Photography and the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico, 1870-1930". New Mexico Historical Review 84, no.2 (Spring 2009): 187-232.
RG075

Fuss, Allison. "Cowboys on the Reservation: The Growth of Rodeo as a Lakota National Pastime". South Dakota History 29, no.3 (Fall 1999): 211-228.
RG075

Galler, Robert W., Jr. "Sustaining the Sioux Confederation: Yanktonai Initiatives and Influence on the Northern Plains, 1680-1880". Western Historical Quarterly 39, no.4 (Winter 2008): 467-490.
RG075

Ganter, Granville. "Red Jacket and the Decolonization of Republican Virtue". American Indian Quarterly 31, no.4 (Fall 2007): 559-581.
RG075

Gardner, Susan. "'Weaving an Epic Story': Ella Cara Deloria's Pageant for the Indians of Robeson County, North Carolina, 1940-1941". Mississippi Quarterly 60, no.1 (Winter 2006/2007): 33-57.
RG075

Garrison, Tim Alan. "Beyond Worchester: The Alabama Supreme Court and the Sovereignty of the Creek Nation". Journal of the Early Republic 19, no.3 (Fall 1999): 423-450.
RG075

Gere, Anne Ruggles. "Indian Heart/White Man's Head: Native-American Teachers in Indian Schools, 1880-1930". History of Education Quarterly 45, no.1 (Spring 2005): 38-65.
RG075

Gibson, Wayne Dell. "Cherokee Treaty Party Moves West: The Bell-Deas Overland Journey, 1838-1839". Chronicles of Oklahoma 79, no.3 (Fall 2001): 314-335.
RG075/RG107/RG217

Gilbert, Matthew Sakiestewa. "Hopi Footraces and American Marathons, 1912-1930". American Quarterly 62, no.1 (March 2010): 77-103.
RG075

Gilbert, Matthew Sakiestewa. "Marathoner Louis Tewanima and the Continuity of Hopi Running, 1908-1912". Western Historical Quarterly 43, no.3 (Autumn 2012): 324-346.
RG075

Gills, Bradley J. "Navigating the Landscape of Assimilation: The Anishnabeg, the Lumber Industry, and the Failure of Federal Indian Policy in Michigan". Michigan Historical Review 34, no.2 (Fall 2008): 57-74.
RG075

Gilman, Rhoda R. "A Northwestern Indian Territory- The Last Voice". Journal of the West 39, no.1 (January 2000): 16-22.
RG075

Gonzales, Angela, Judy Kertesz, and Gabrielle Tayac. "Eugenics as Indian Removal: Sociohistorical Processes and the De(con)struction of American Indians in the Southeast". Public Historian 29, no.3 (Summer 2007): 53-67.
RG075

Goodburn, Amy. "Literacy Practices at the Genoa Industrial Indian School". Great Plains Quarterly 19, no.1 (Winter 1999): 35-52.
RG075

Gould, Lewis L. "A. S. Mercer and the Johnson County War: A Reappraisal". Arizona and the West 7, no.1 (Spring 1965): 5-20.
RG039/RG048/RG049/RG060/RG075

Graber, John W. "One Man's Civil War". Minnesota History 52, no.4 (Winter 1990): 144-153.
RG075

Gram, John R. "Acting Out Assimilation: Playing Indian and Becoming American in the Federal Indian Boarding Schools". American Indian Quarterly 40, no.3 (Summer 2016): 251-273.
RG075

Granados, Gwen E. "The Federal Government and Citizenship: Archival Resources at the National Archives in Laguna Niguel". Western Legal History 20, no.1 & 2 (2007): 63-94.
RG021/RG075

Gray, John S. "Fact versus Fiction in the Kansas Boyhood of Buffalo Bill". Kansas History 8, no.1 (Spring 1985): 2-20.
RG048/RG075

Gray, John S. "Honore Pitcotte, Fur Trader". South Dakota History 6, no.2 (Spring 1976): 186-202.
RG075

Gray, John S. "The Story of Mrs. Picotte-Galpin, a Sioux Heroine". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 36, no.2 (Spring 1986): 2-21.
RG049/RG075/RG092

Gray, John S. "The Story of Mrs. Picotte-Galpin, a Sioux Heroine: Eagle Woman Becomes a Trader and Counsels for Peace, 1868-1888". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 36, no.3 (Summer 1986): 2-21.
RG075/RG092

Graybill, Andrew R. "Helen P. Clarke in 'The Age of Tribes': Montana's Changing Racial Landscape, 1870-1920". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 61, no.1 (Spring 2011): 3-19.
RG075

Gregg, Matthew T. "Shortchanged: Uncovering the Value of Pre-Removal Cherokee Property". Chronicles of Oklahoma 87, no.3 (Fall 2009): 320-335.
RG075

Grover, Linda LeGarde. "From Assimilation to Termination: The Vermilion Lake Indian School". Minnesota History 58, no.4 (Winter 2002-03): 225-240.
RG075

Grua, David W. "'In Memory of the Chief Big Foot Massacre': The Wounded Knee Survivors and the Politics of Memory". Western Historical Quarterly 46, no.1 (Spring 2015): 31-51.
RG075

Gruenwald, Kim M. "American Indians and the Public School System: A Case Study of the Northern Utes". Utah Historical Quarterly 64, no.3 (Summer 1996): 246-263.
RG075

Grytz, Gerhard. "Culture in the Making: The Yavape of Central Arizona, 1860-1935". American Indian Culture and Research Journal 24, no.3 (2000): 111-129.
RG075

Gwiazda, Henry J., II. "In Search of the Big One: Earthquakes in United States History". Prologue 21, no.4 (Winter 1989): 359-371.
RG018/RG023/RG027/RG030/RG046/RG048/RG054/RG057/RG059/RG077/ RG080/RG092/RG095/RG111/RG126/RG151/RG168/RG268/RG287/RG306/ RG350/RG023, Rocky Mountain Region/RG075, Pacific Southwest Region/RG077, Pacific Southwest Region/RG021, Pacific Sierra Region/RG075, Pacific Sierra Region/RG112, Pacific Sierra Region/RG181, Pacific Sierra Region/RG220, Pacific Northwest Region

Haake, Claudia. "Identity, Sovereignty, and Power: The Cherokee-Delaware Agreement of 1867, Past and Present". American Indian Quarterly 26, no.3 (Summer 2002): 418-435.
RG075

Hagan, Barry J. "'I Never before Thought Death so Near'". Periodical 10, no.1 (Spring 1978): 3-13.
RG075/RG391/RG393

Hall, Ryan. "Before the Medicine Line: Blackfoot Trade Strategy and the Emergence of the Northwest Plains Borderlands, 1818-1846". Pacific Historical Review 86, no.3 (August 2017): 381-406.
RG075

Hamalainen, Pekka. "The First Phase of Destruction: Killing the Southern Plains Buffalo, 1790-1840". Great Plains Quarterly 21, no.2 (Spring 2001): 101-114.
RG075

Hamalainen, Pekka. "The Politics of Grass: European Expansion, Ecological Change, and Indigenous Power in the Southwest Borderlands". William and Mary Quarterly 67, no.2 (April 2010): 173-208.
RG059/RG075

Hamalainen, Pekka. "The Rise and Fall of Plains Indian Horse Cultures". Journal of American History 90, no.3 (December 2003): 833-862.
RG075

Hamilton, Allen Lee. "The Warren Wagontrain Raid: Frontier Indian Policy at the Crossroads". Arizona and the West 28, no.3 (Autumn 1986): 201-224.
RG070/RG075/RG094/RG393

Hancock, Jonathan. "Shaken Spirits: Cherokees, Moravian Missionaries, and the New Madrid Earthquakes". Journal of the Early Republic 33, no.4 (Winter 2013): 643-673.
RG075

Hanneman, Carolyn G. "Baffles, Bridges, and Bermuda: Oklahoma Indians and the Civilian Conservation Corps-Indian Division". Chronicles of Oklahoma 57, no.4 (Winter 1999-2000): 428-449.
RG075

Hans, Birgit. "A Woman's Touch: Housekeepers in the Day Schools at Pine Ridge and Rosebud, 1880-1920". South Dakota History 46, no.3 (Fall 2016): 225-247.
RG075

Hanson, Charles E., Jr. and Veronica Sue Walters. "The Early Fur Trade in Northwestern Nebraska". Nebraska History 57, no.3 (Fall 1976): 291-314.
RG075/RG077/RG123

Harmon, Alexandra. "Lines in Sand: Shifting Boundaries between Indians and Non-Indians in the Puget Sound Region". Western Historical Quarterly 26, no.4 (Winter 1995): 428-453.
RG021/RG075/NARA photos

Harmon, Alexandra. "Tribal Enrollment Councils: Lessons on Law and Indian Identity". Western Historical Quarterly 32, no.2 (Summer 2001): 175-200.
RG075

Harris, Dee A. "Cowboys, Quacks, and Carousels: Stories of Kansas". Prologue 44, no.1 (Spring 2012): 30-34.
RG021/RG075/RG079/RG118/RG147

Hart, E. Richard. "Federal Recognition of Native American Tribes: The Case of California's Amah Mutsun". Western Legal History 16, no.1 (Winter/Spring 2003): 39-84.
RG075/RG123

Hart, E. Richard. "Return of the Water Horse". Western Historical Quarterly 35, no.4 (Winter 2004): 493-499.
RG075

Hart, E. Richard. "The Dawes Act and the Permanency of Executive Order Reservations". Western Legal History 12, no.1 (Winter/Spring 1999): 11-47.
RG075

Hart, E. Richard. "The History of the Wenatchi Fishing Reservation". Western Legal History 13, no.2 (Summer/Fall 2000): 164-203.
RG048/RG049/RG075/RG094/RG279/RG393/RG494

Harte, John Bret. "The Strange Case of Joseph C. Tiffany: Indian Agent in Disgrace". Journal of Arizona History 16, no.4 (Winter 1975): 383-404.
RG048/RG075/RG393

Harvey, Sean P. "'Must Not Their Languages Be Savage and Barbarous Like Them?' Philology, Indian Removal, and Race Science". Journal of the Early Republic 30, no.4 (Winter 2010): 505-532.
RG075

Haskins, Victoria. "Domesticating Colonizers: Domesticity, Indigenous Domestic Labor, and the Modern Settler Colonial Nation". American Historical Review 124, no.4 (October 2019): 1290-1301.
RG075

Hauptman, Laurence M. "Alice Jemison: Seneca Political Activist, 1901-1964". Indian Historian 12, no.2 (Summer 1979): 15-22, 60-62.
RG075/FDR Library

Hauptman, Laurence M. "Samuel George (1795-1873): A Study of Onondaga Indian Conservatism". New York History 70, no.1 (January 1989): 4-22.
RG075

Hauptman, Laurence M. "The American Indian Federation and the Indian New Deal: A Reinterpretation". Pacific Historical Review 52, no.4 (November 1983): 378-402.
RG075

Hauptman, Laurence M. "The Iroquois School of Art: Arthur C. Parker and the Seneca Arts Project, 1935-1941". New York History 55, no.3 (July 1979): 282-312.
RG075/RG435

Hauptmann, Laurence. "The State's Men, the Salvation Seekers, and the Seneca: The Supplemental Treaty of Buffalo Creek, 1842". New York History 78, no.1 (January 1997): 51-82.
RG075

Haveman, Christopher D. "'With Great Difficulty and Labour': The Emigration of the McIntosh Party of Creek Indians, 1828-1828". Chronicles of Oklahoma 85, no.4 (Winter 2007-08): 468-490.
RG075/RG217

Haycox, Stephen W. "Economic Development and Indian Land Rights in Modern Alaska: The 1947 Tongass Timber Act". Western Historical Quarterly 21, no.1 (February 1990): 21-46.
RG048/RG075/RG095/RG126/RG348/HST Library

Hayes, Jerry G. "Ardent Spirits among the Chickasaws and Choctaws, 1816-1856". Chronicles of Oklahoma 69, no.3 (Fall 1991): 294-309.
RG075

Haygood, William Converse. "Red Child, White Child: The Strange Disappearance of Caspar Partridge". Wisconsin Magazine of History 58, no.4 (Summer 1975): 259-312.
RG075

Hays, Kelly R. "General Garland's War: The Mescalero Apache Campaigns, 1854-1855". New Mexico Historical Review 67, no.3 (July 1992): 251-268.
RG075/RG094/RG393

Heaston, Michael D. "The Governor and the Indian Agent: 1855-1857". New Mexico Historical Review 45, no.2 (April 1970): 137-146.
RG059/RG075

Heaton, John W. "'No Place to Pitch Their Teepees': Shoshone Adaptation to Mormon Settlers in Cache Valley, 1855-70". Utah Historical Quarterly 63, no.2 (Spring 1995): 158-171.
RG075

Heaton, John W. "Athabascan Village Stores: Subsistence Shopping in Interior Alaska, 1850-1950". Western Historical Quarterly 43, no.2 (Summer 2012): 133-155.
RG075

Heidenreich, C. Adrian. "The Crow Indian Delegation to Washington, D. C., in 1880". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 31, no.2 (Spring 1981): 55-67.
RG075

Heidenreich, C. Adrian. "The Native Americans' Yellowstone". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 35, no.4 (Autumn 1985): 2-17.
RG075

Henningfield, Melinda Daffin. "A Family for Mary (Jones) Hobbs Clark of Carroll County, Arkansas". National Genealogical Society Quarterly 107, no.1 (March 2019): 5-30.
RG029/RG075

Herring, Joseph B. "Cultural and Economic Resilience among the Kickapoo Indians of the Southwest". Great Plains Quarterly 6, no.4 (Fall 1986): 263-275.
RG075

Herring, Joseph B. "Indian Intransigency in Kansas: Government Bureaucracy vs. Mokohoko's Sacs and Foxes". Western Historical Quarterly 17, no.2 (April 1986): 185-200.
RG049/RG075

Herring, Joseph B. "Kenekuk, the Kickapoo Prophet: Acculturation without Assimilation". American Indian Quarterly 9, no.3 (Summer 1985): 295-307.
RG075

Herring, Joseph B. "Selling the 'Noble Savage' Myth: George Catlin and the Iowa Indians in Europe, 1843-1845". Kansas History 29, no.4 (Winter 2006-2007): 226-245.
RG075

Herring, Joseph B. "The Chippewa and Munsee Indians: Acculturation and Survival in Kansas, 1850s-1870". Kansas History 6, no.4 (Winter 1983-84): 212-220.
RG075

Hieb, Louis A. "'The Flavor of Adventure Now Rare': H. C. Rizer's Account of James Stevenson's 1882 Bureau of Ethnology Expedition to Canyon de Chelly". Journal of Arizona History 46, no.3 (Autumn 2005): 205-248.
RG053/RG075

Hieb, Louis A. "Collecting for the Centennial Indian Exhibit: The J.K. Hillers-Olin D. Wheeler Expedition to the Hopis in 1876". New Mexico Historical Review 86, no.2 (Spring 2011): 157-195.
RG029/RG075

Hill, Christina Gish. "'General Miles Put Us Here': Northern Cheyenne Military Alliance and Soveriegn Territorial Rights". AIQ 37, no.4 (Fall 2013): 340-369.
RG075

Hogan, William T. "Tribalism Rejuvenatead: The Native". Western Historical Quarterly 12, no.1 (January 1981): 5-16.
RG075

Hoig, Stan. "Diana, Tiana, or Talihina? The Myth and Mystery of Sam Houston's Cherokee Wife". Chronicles of Oklahoma 64, no.2 (Summer 1986): 52-59.
RG075

Hoig, Stan. "The Genealogy of Jesse Chisolm". Chronicles of Oklahoma 67, no.2 (Summer 1989): 194-205.
RG075

Hoig, Stan. "The Northern Cheyenne Exodus and the 1878 Battle of Turkey Springs". Chronicles of Oklahoma 80, no.1 (Spring 2002): 4-19.
RG075/RG094

Holman, Tom. "William G. Coffin, Lincoln's Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Southern Superintendency". Kansas Historical Quarterly 39, no.4 (Winter 1973): 491-514.
RG075

Holt, Marilyn Irvin. "Farm Women, Domestic Economy, and South Dakota's Agrarian Press". South Dakota History 24, no.2 (Summer 1994): 77-98.
RG075/RG102

Hoover, Herbert T. "Arikara, Sioux, and Government Farmers: Three American Indian Agricultural Legacies". South Dakota History 13, no.1-2 (Spring-Summer 1983): 22-48.
RG075

Hoover, Herbert T. "Farmers Fight Back: A Survey of Rural Political Organizations, 1873-1983". South Dakota History 13, no.1-2 (Spring-Summer 1983): 122-157.
RG075

Hoover, Herbert T. "The Sioux Agreement of 1889 and Its Aftermath". South Dakota History 19, no.1 (Spring 1989): 56-94.
RG075/RG076

Hoover, Herbert T. "Yankton Sioux Tribal Claims against the United States, 1917-1975". Western Historical Quarterly 7, no.2 (April 1976): 125-142.
RG075

Hopkins, Kenneth N. "Henry S. Johnston: Attorney for the Otoe-Missourias". Chronicles of Oklahoma 63, no.1 (Spring 1985): 28-47.
RG075

Houser, Teresa M. "A Pivotal Decision: The Yankton Sioux and the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934". South Dakota History 42, no.2 (Summer 2012): 95-125.
RG075

Houser, Teresa M. "New Deal Experimentation and the Political Economy of the Yankton Sioux, 1930-1934". Great Plains Quarterly 31, no.3 (Summer 2011): 205-222.
RG075

Houston, Robert B. "On the Face of the Earth: Marking Colorado's Boundaries, 1868-1925". Colorado History , no.10 (2004): 87-105.
RG075

Howard, Kathleen L. "Weaving a Legend: Elle of Ganado Promotes the Southwest". New Mexico Historical Review 74, no.2 (April 1999): 127-153.
RG075

Howard, R. Palmer, and Virginia E. Allen. "Stress and Death in the Settlement of Indian Territory". Chronicles of Oklahoma 54, no.3 (Fall 1976): 352-359.
RG075

Hoxie, Frederick E. "From Prison to Homeland: The Cheyenne River Indian Reservation before WWI". South Dakota History 10, no.1 (Winter 1979): 1-24.
RG048/RG075

Hoxie, Frederick E. "Redefining Indian Education: Thomas J. Morgan's Program in Disarray". Arizona and the West 24, no.1 (Spring 1982): 5-18.
RG075

Hoxie, Frederick E. "The View from Eagle Butte: National Archives Field Branches and the Writing of American Indian History". Journal of American History 76, no.1 (June 1989): 172-180.
RG075

Hoyt, Colgate. "An Account of a Trip through the Yellowstone Valley in 1878". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 36, no.2 (Spring 1986): 22-35.
RG075

Hudson, Angela Pulley. "Review of The Moravian Springplace Mission to the Cherokees". Documentary Editing 30, no.3 & 4 (Fall and Winter 2008-2009): 57-65.
RG075

Hulston, Nancy J. "Federal Children: Indian Education and the Red Cloud-McGillycuddy Conflict". South Dakota History 25, no.2 (Summer 1995): 81-94.
RG075

Hundley, Norris, Jr. "The 'Winter's' Decision and Indian Water Rights: A Mystery Reexamined". Western Historical Quarterly 13, no.1 (January 1982): 17-42.
RG021/RG029/RG048/RG075/RG060/RG115

Hunter, Leslie Gene. "The Mojave Expedition of 1858-59". Arizona and the West 21, no.2 (Summer 1979): 137-156.
RG075/RG094/RG108/RG393

Hurtado, Albert L. "'Hardly a Farm House - A Kitchen without Them': Indian and White Households on the California Borderland Frontier in 1860". Western Historical Quarterly 13, no.2 (July 1982): 245-270.
RG075

Hurtado, Albert L. "California Indian Demography, Sherburne F. Cook, and the Revision of American History". Pacific Historical Review 58, no.3 (August 1989): 323-344.
RG029/RG075

Hyer, Joel R. "'It Was My Duty to Protect the Indians' Senator Thomas R. Bard and the Removal of the Cupenos from Warner's Ranch". Journal of the West 46, no.4 (Fall 2007): 28-39.
RG075

Isenberg, Andrew C. "An Empire of Remedy: Vaccination, Natives, and Narratives in the North American West". Pacific Historical Review 86, no.1 (February 2017): 84-113.
RG075

Isenberg, Andrew C. "The Market Revolution in the Borderlands: George Champlin Sibley in Missouri and New Mexico, 1808-1826". Journal of the Early Republic 21, no.3 (Fall 2001): 444-465.
RG075

Isenberg, Andrew. "Toward a Policy of Destruction: Buffaloes, Law, and the Market, 1803-83". Great Plains Quarterly 12, no.4 (Fall 1992): 227-241.
RG075

Isern, Thomas D. "The Controversial Career of Edward W. Wynkoop". Colorado Magazine 56, no.1 (Winter/Spring 1979): 1-18.
RG075

Iverson, Peter. "Carlos Montezuma and the Fort McDowell Yavapai Community". Journal of Arizona History 22, no.4 (Winter 1981): 415-428.
RG075

Iverson, Peter. "When Indians Became Cowboys". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 45, no.1 (Winter 1995): 16-31.
RG075

Jacobs, Margaret D. "A Battle for the Children: American Indian Child Removal in Arizona in the Era of Assimilation". Journal of Arizona History 45, no.1 (Spring 2004): 31-62.
RG075

Jacobs, Margaret D. "Shaping a New Way: White Women and the Movement to Promote Pueblo Indian Arts and Crafts, 1900-1935". Journal of the Southwest 40, no.2 (Summer 1998): 187-188.
RG075

Jacobs, Margaret D. "Working on the Domestic Frontier: American Indian Domestic Servants in White Women's Households in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1920-1940". Frontiers 28, no.1/2 (2007): 165-200.
RG075

Jagodinsky, Katrina. "'In Family Way': Guarding Indigenous Women's Children in Washington Territory". American Indian Quarterly 37, no.1-2 (Winter-Spring 2013): 160-177.
RG029/RG075

Jagodinsky, Katrina. "A Tale of Two Sisters: Family Histories from the Strait Salish Borderlands". Western Historical Quarterly 47, no.1 (Spring 2016): 27-49.
RG029/RG075

Jain, Samvit. "Leader and Spokesman for a People in Exile: Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce". History Teacher 43, no.1 (November 2009): 121-139.
RG029/RG075/RG094

James, Elizabeth. "The Allotment Period on the Nez Perce Reservation: Encroachments,Obstacles, and Reactions". Idaho Yesterdays 37, no.1 (Spring 1993): 10-23.
RG075

Jensen, Joan M. "Sexuality on a Northern Frontier: The Gendering and Disciplining of Rural Wisconsin Women, 1850-1920". Agricultural History 73, no.2 (Spring 1999): 136-167.
RG075/RG102

Jensen, Richard E. "'1,000 Miles from Home on the Wild Prairie': Charles B. Darwin's 1849 Nebraska Diary". Nebraska History 85, no.2 (Summer 2004): 58-114.
RG075/RG094/RG393

Jensen, Richard E. "Bellevue: The First Twenty Years, 1822-1842". Nebraska History 56, no.3 (Fall 1975): 339-374.
RG075

Jensen, Richard E. "Big Foot's Followers at Wounded Knee". Nebraska History 71, no.4 (1990): 194-212.
RG075

Jensen, Richard E. "Soldiers' Letters from Fort Childs, 1848-49". Nebraska History 82, no.3 (Fall 2001): 122-129.
RG075/RG094

Jensen, Richard E. "The Oto, Missouria, and Agent Dennison". Nebraska History 59, no.1 (Spring 1978): 47-55.
RG075

Jensen, Richard E. "The Pawnee Mission, 1834-1846". Nebraska History 75, no.4 (Winter 1994): 301-310.
RG075

Jensen, Richard E. "The Wright-Beauchampe Investigation and the Pawnee Threat of 1829". Nebraska History 79, no.3 (Fall 1998): 133-143.
RG075/RG094

John, Elizabeth A. H. "A Wichita Migration Tale". American Indian Quarterly 7, no.4 (Fall 1983): 57-63.
RG075

John, Elizabeth A. H. "Portrait of a Wichita Village, 1808". Chronicles of Oklahoma 60, no.4 (Winter 1982-83): 412-437.
RG075

Johnson, Charles, Jr. "Black Seminoles: Their History and Their Quest for Land". Journal of the Afro-American Historical and Genealogical Society 1, no.2 (1980): 47-58.
RG015/RG059/RG075/RG092/RG094/RG393

Johnson, Khalil Anthony, Jr. "The Chinle Dog Shoots: Federal Governance and Grass-roots Politics in Postwar Navajo Country". Pacific Historical Review 83, no.1 (February 2014): 92-129.
RG075

Jones, David S. "Health Care in the Rural West: The Trials and Tribulations of Physicians on the Indian Reservations in the Late Nineteenth Century". Journal of the West 46, no.3 (Summer 2007): 11-23.
RG075

Jones, Oakah L., Jr. "The Origins of the Navajo Indian Police, 1872-1873". Arizona and the West 8, no.3 (Autumn 1966): 225-238.
RG075

Jones, Sondra. "Saints or Sinners? The Evolving Perceptions of Mormon-Indian Relations in Utah Historiography". Utah Historical Quarterly 72, no.1 (Winter 2004): 19-46.
RG075

Jordan, Philip D. "Iowa's Puzzling Jeremiah Smiths". Annals of Iowa 45, no.5 (Summer 1980): 352-383.
RG055/RG075

Jorgensen, Danny L. "Building the Kingdom of God: Alpheus Cutler and the Second Mormon Mission to the Indians, 1846-1853". Kansas History 15, no.3 (Autumn 1992): 192-209.
RG075

Jung, Patrick J. "Judge James Duane Doty and Wisconsin's First Court: The Additional Court of Michigan Territory, 1823-1836". Wisconsin Magazine of History 86, no.2 (Winter 2002-2003): 32-41.
RG075

Jung, Patrick J. "Toward the Black Hawk War: The Sauk and Fox Indians and the War of 1812". Michigan Historical Review 38, no.1 (Spring 2012): 27-52.
RG075

Karamanski, Theodore J. "State Citizenship as a Tool of Indian Persistence: A Case Study of the Anishinaabeg of Michigan". Michigan Historical Review 37, no.1 (Spring 2011): 119-138.
RG075

Karlberg, Patricia E., and Robert H. Keller. "Oregon Clergy and Indian War in the Northwest: Home Missionary Correspondence, 1855-1857". Pacific Northwest Quarterly 79, no.1 (January 1988): 26-34.
RG075

Karr, Steven M. "The Warner's Ranch Indian Removal: Cultural Adaptation, Accommodation, and Continuity". California History 86, no.4 (September 2009): 24-43.
RG075

Kavanagh, Thomas W. "Playing a Numbers Game: Counting the Comanches in History and Anthropology". Journal of the West 46, no.1 (Winter 2007): 54-62.
RG075

Keagle, Jordan. "Eastern Beads, Western Applications: Wampum among Plains Tribes". Great Plains Quarterly 33, no.4 (Fall 2013): 221-235.
RG075

Keenan, Jerry. "Yellowstone Kelly: From New York to Paradise". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 40, no.3 (Summer 1990): 15-27.
RG075

Keller, Robert H. "America's Native Sweet: Chippewa Treaties and the Right to Harvest Maple Sugar". American Indian Quarterly 13, no.2 (Spring 1989): 117-135.
RG075

Keller, Robert H. "Episcopal Reformers and Affairs at Red Cloud Agency, 1870-1876". Nebraska History 68, no.3 (Fall 1987): 116-126.
RG048/RG075

Kelly, Lawrence C. "Anthropology in the Soil Conservation Service". Agricultural History 59, no.2 (April 1985): 136-147.
RG048/RG075/RG083/RG114

Kelly, Lawrence C. "John Collier and the Pueblo Lands Board Act". New Mexico Historical Review 58, no.1 (January 1983): 5-34.
RG075

Kelly, Lawrence C. "The Indian Reorganization Act: The Dream and the Reality". Pacific Historical Review 44, no.3 (August 1975): 291-312.
RG046/RG075

Kelly, Mark W. "The Yellowstone Expedition: The American Military on the Missouri River 1818-1820--A Tale of Politics, Personalities, and Pettiness". Journal of American's Military Past 27, no.1 (Spring/Summer 2000): 17-53.
RG075

Kelsey, Harry. "Abraham Lincoln and American Indian Policy". Lincoln Herald 77, no.3 (Fall 1975): 139-148.
RG011/RG075

Kelsey, Harry. "The Doolittle Report of 1867: Its Preparation and Shortcomings". Arizona and the West 17, no.2 (Summer 1975): 107-120.
RG075

Kelton, Paul. "William Penn Adair: Cherokee Slaveholder and Indian Freedom Advocate". Chronicles of Oklahoma 77, no.1 (Spring 1999): 22-53.
RG075/RG094

Kessell, John L. "General Sherman and the Navajo Treaty of 1868: A Basic and Expedient Misunderstanding". Western Historical Quarterly 12, no.3 (July 1981): 251-272.
RG048/RG075/RG094/RG098

Keuchel, Edward F. "Lieutenant John G. Reynolds USMC and the Florida Seminoles". Periodical 23, no.4 (Winter 1996): 65-70.
RG075

Key, Joseph Patrick. "'Outcasts upon the World': The Louisiana Purchase and the Quapaws". Arkansas Historical Quarterly 62, no.3 (Autumn 2003): 272-288.
RG075

Key, Joseph Patrick. "Indians and Ecological Conflict in Territorial Arkansas". Arkansas Historical Quarterly 59, no.2 (2000): 127-146.
RG075

King, Jeffery S. "'Do Not Execute Chief Pocatello': President Lincoln Acts to Save the Shoshoni Chief". Utah Historical Quarterly 53, no.3 (Summer 1985): 237-247.
RG075/RG094

King, Roberta. "Research in Nebraska". National Genealogical Society Quarterly 98, no.1 (March 2010): 31-72.
RG075/RG094

Kiser, William S. "A 'Charming Name for a Species of Slavery': Political Debate on Debt Peonage in the Southwest, 1840s-1860s". Western Historical Quarterly 65, no.2 (Summer 2014): 169-189.
RG046/RG075

Kiser, William S. "The Politics of Slavery and Social Hierarchies in Colonial, Mexican, and Territorial New Mexico". New Mexico Historical Review 92, no.3 (Summer 2017): 285-309.
RG059/RG075/RG393

Klann, Mary. "Babies in Baskets: Motherhood, Tourism, and American Identity in Indian Baby Shows, 1916-1949". Journal of Women's History 29, no.2 (Summer 2017): 38-61.
RG075

Klassen, Henry C. "T.C. Power & Bro.: The Rise of a Small Western Department Store, 1870-1902". Business History Review 66, no.4 (Winter 1992): 671-722.
RG075/RG101/RG107

Klingle, Matthew. "Inescapable Paradoxes: Diabetes, Progress, and Ecologies of Inequality". Environmental History 20, no.4 (October 2015): 736-750.
RG075

Knack, Martha C. "Philene T. Hall, Bureau of Indian Affairs Field Matron: Planned Culture Change of Washakie Shoshone Women". Prologue 22, no.2 (Summer 1990): 150-167.
RG075/RG029/RG094

Knack, Martha C. "The Effects of Nevada State Laws on the Northern Paiutes of Pyramid Lake". Nevada Historical Society Quarterly 25, no.4 (Winter 1982): 251-265.
RG075

Knack, Martha C. "The Saga of Tim Hooper's Homestead: Non-Reservation Shoshone Indian Land Title in Nevada". Western Historical Quarterly 34, no.2 (Summer 2008): 125-151.
RG029/RG075

Knapp, Ronald G. and Lawrence M. Hauptman. "'Civilization over Savagery': The Japanese, the Formosan Frontier, and United States Indian Policy, 1895-1915". Pacific Historical Review 49, no.4 (November 1980): 547-652.
RG075/RG094

Knetsch, Joe and Sarah P. Ward. "Fort Hamer on the Manatee River: Florida's Reusable Fort". Journal of America's Military Past 33, no.1 (Spring/Summer 2007): 5-22.
RG049/RG075/RG393

Knipmeyer, James H. "Did Prospectors See Rainbow Bridge before 1909?". Utah Historical Quarterly 77, no.2 (Spring 2009): 166-189.
RG075

Koppes, Clayton R. "From New Deal to Termination: Liberalism and Indian Policy, 1933-1953". Pacific Historical Review 46, no.4 (November 1977): 543-566.
RG048/RG049/RG075/HST Library

Kracht, Benjamin R. "'It Would Break Our Hearts Not to Have Our Kiowas': War Dancing, Tourism, and the Rise of Powwows in the Early Twentieth Century". Chronicles of Oklahoma 90, no.3 (Fall 2012): 286-309.
RG075

Kracht, Benjamin R. "Kiowa Powwows: Continuity in Ritual Practice". American Indian Quarterly 18, no.3 (Summer 1994): 321-348.
RG075

Kracht, Benjamin R. "Kiowa Religion in Historical Perspective". American Indian Quarterly 21, no.1 (Winter 1997): 15-33.
RG075

Kremer, Gary R. "For Justice and a Fee: James Milton Turner and the Cherokee Freedmen". Chronicles of Oklahoma 58, no.4 (Winter 1980-81): 377-391.
RG069/RG075/RG076

Kroeber, Clifton, and Karl Kroeber. "Ishi: Wowonupo to Parnassus Heights, 1908-1911". Journal of the Southwest 44, no.4 (Winter 2002): 357-382.
RG075

Kuhn, Berndt. "Siege in Cooke's Canyon: The Freeman Thomas Fight of 1861". Journal of Arizona History 38, no.2 (Summer 1997): 155-176.
RG029/RG075/RG393

La Vere, David. "Between Kinship and Capitalism: French and Spanish Rivalry in the Colonial Louisiana-Texas Indian Trade". Journal of Southern History 64, no.2 (May 1998): 197-218.
RG075

Lackey, Richard S. "Genealogical Research: An Assessment of Potential Value". Prologue 7, no.4 (Winter 1975): 221-225.
RG015/RG049/RG075/RG076/RG107/RG217

Lahrman, Delores M., and Ross S. Johnson. "A Delaware Indian's Reservation: Samuel Cassman vs. Goldsmith C. Gilbert". Indiana Magazine of History 71, no.2 (June 1975): 103-123.
RG075

Lakomaki, Sami. "'Our Line': The Shawnees, the United States, and Competing Borders on the Great Lakes' 'Borderlands,' 1795-1832". Journal of the Early Republic 34, no.4 (Winter 2014): 597-624.
RG075/RG107

Lamb, Terrence J. "Indian-Government Relations on Water Utilization in the Salt and Gila River Valleys of Southern Arizona: 1902-1914". Indian Historian 10, no.3 (Summer 1977): 38-45, 61-62.
RG075

Lambert, Michael. "How Grandma Kate Lost Her Cherokee Blood and What This Says about Race, Blood, and Belonging in Indian Country". AIQ 43, no.2 (Spring 2019): 135-167.
RG075

Lansing, Michael. "Plains Indian Women and Interracial Marriage in the Upper Missouri Trade, 1804-1868". Western Historical Quarterly 31, no.4 (Winter 2000): 413-433.
RG075

LaPier, Rosalyn and David R. M. Beck. "A 'one-man relocation team': Scott Henry Peters and American Indian Urban Migration in the 1930s". Western Historical Quarterly 45, no.1 (Spring 2014): 17-36.
RG075

Larsen, Lawrence H. "War Balloons over the Prairie: The Japanese Invasion of South Dakota". South Dakota History 9, no.2 (Spring 1979): 103-115.
RG075/RG098

Larson, Robert W. "A Victor in Defeat: Chief Gall's Life on the Standing Rock Reservation". Prologue 40, no.3 (Fall 2008): 36-45.
Online version
RG075/RG111/RG393

Lass, William E. "Elias H. Durfee and Campbell K. Peck: Indian Traders on the Upper Missouri Frontier". Journal of the West 43, no.2 (Spring 2004): 9-19.
RG060/RG075

Laudenschlager, David D. "The Utes in South Dakota, 1906-1908". South Dakota History 9, no.3 (Summer 1979): 233-245.
RG048/RG075

Lawson, Michael L. "'We lost our way of living': The Inundation of the White Swan Community". South Dakota History 36, no.2 (Summer 2006): 135-171.
RG021/RG075/RG077

Leader, Jeanne P. "The Pottawatomies and Alcohol: An Illustration of the Illegal Trade". Kansas History 2, no.3 (Autumn 1979): 157-165.
RG075

Leavelle, Tracy Neal. "'We Will Make It Our Own Place': Agriculture and Adaptation at the Grand Ronde Reservation, 1856-1887". American Indian Quarterly 22, no.4 (1998): 433-456.
RG075

Lemons, William E. "History by Unreliable Narrators: Sitting Bull's Circus Horse". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 45, no.4 (Autumn-Winter 1995): 64-74.
RG075/RG094

Lennon, Rachal M. "Southeastern Indians prior to Removal: An Introduction to Research and Resources". National Genealogical Society Quarterly 85, no.3 (September 1997): 165-194.
RG049/RG075/RG123

Lewis, David Rich. "Changing Subsistence, Changing Reservation Environments: The Hupa, 1850-1980s". Agricultural History 66, no.2 (Spring 1992): 34-51.
RG075/RG393

Lewis, G. Malcolm. "Intracultural Mapmaking by First Nations Peoples in the Great Lakes Region: A Historical Review". Michigan Historical Review 32, no.1 (Spring 2006): 1-17.
RG011/RG075

Lewis, Tab. "Labor History Sources in the National Archives". Labor History 31, no.1-2 (Winter-Spring 1990): 98-104.
RG001/RG002/RG009/RG013/RG014/RG016/RG021/RG025/RG028/RG032/ RG033/RG035/RG046/RG060/RG069/RG070/RG075/RG080/RG083/RG086/ RG102/RG119/RG151/RG157/RG165/RG174/RG183/RG202/RG204/RG211/ RG228/RG229/RG233/RG254/RG257/RG267/RG280/RG287/RG389

Liebhardt, Barbara. "Allotment Policy in an Incongruous Legal System: The Yakima Indian Nation as a Case Study, 1887-1934". Agricultural History 65, no.4 (Fall 1991): 78-103.
RG075/RG267

Linsenmayer, Penny T. "A Study of Laura Ingalls Wilder's Little House on the Prairie". Kansas History 24, no.3 (Autumn 2001): 169-185.
RG075

Littlefield, Daniel F., Jr. "Abraham G. Mayers". Arkansas Historical Quarterly 34, no.2 (Summer 1975): 122-148.
RG029/RG075

Littlefield, Daniel F., Jr. and Lonnie E. Underhill. "Fort Wayne and Border Violence, 1840-1847". Arkansas Historical Quarterly 36, no.1 (Spring 1977): 3-30.
RG049/RG075/RG094/RG391/RG393

Littlefield, Daniel F., Jr. and Lonnie E. Underhill. "The 'Crazy Snake' Uprising of 1909: A Red, Black, or White Affair?". Arizona and the West 20, no.4 (Winter 1978): 307-324.
RG048/RG075

Lockwood, Patricia W. "The Legacy of Caleb Starr". Chronicles of Oklahoma 61, no.3 (Fall 1983): 288-307.
RG075

Lockwood, Patricia. "Judge John Martin, First Chief Justice of the Cherokees". Chronicles of Oklahoma 64, no.2 (Summer 1986): 60-73.
RG011/RG075

Loewenberg, Robert J. "Creating a Provisional Government in Oregon: A Revision". Pacific Northwest Quarterly 68, no.1 (January 1977): 13-24.
RG075

Logan, Roger V., Jr. "New Light on the Mountain Meadows Caravan". Utah Historical Quarterly 60, no.3 (1992): 224-237.
RG075

Low, Denise and Ramon Powers. "Northern Cheyenne Warrior Ledger Art: Captivity Narratives of Northern Cheyenne Prisoners in 1879 Dodge City". Kansas History 35, no.1 (Spring 2012): 2-25.
RG075/RG094/RG098

Lowe, Marjorie J. "'Let's Make It Happen': W.W. Keeler and Cherokee Renewal". Chronicles of Oklahoma 74, no.2 (Summer 1996): 116-129.
RG075

Lowenberg, Robert J. "New Evidence, Old Categories: Jason Lee as Zealot". Pacific Historical Review 47, no.3 (August 1978): 343-368.
RG075

Lowery, Charles D. and Sara Bradford Lowery. "Zachariah McGirth, the Creek Indian War, and the Destruction of the Eastern Creek Nation". Journal of Mississippi History 74, no.2 (Summer 2012): 135-151.
RG075/RG098

Lubetkin, M. John. "The Forgotten Yellowstone Surveying Expeditions of 1871: W. Milnor Roberts and the Northern Pacific Railroad in Montana". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 52, no.4 (Winter 2002): 32-47.
RG075/RG094/RG098

Lucic, Karen, and Bruce Bernstein. "In Pursuit of the Ceremonial: The Laboratory of Anthropology's 'Master Collection' of Zuni Pottery". Journal of the Southwest 50, no.1 (Spring 2008): 1-102.
RG075

Lutz, John. "Inventing an Indian War: Canadian Indians and American Settlers in the Pacific West, 1854-1864". Journal of the West 38, no.3 (July 1998): 7-13.
RG075

Lynn-Sherow, Bonnie and Susannah Ural Bruce. "'How Cola': From Camp Funston: American Indians and the Great War". Kansas History 24, no.2 (Summer 2001): 84-97.
RG075/RG120

MacKay, Kathryn L. "The Strawberry Valley Reclamation Project and the Opening of the Unitah Indian Reservation". Utah Historical Quarterly 50, no.1 (Winter 1982): 68-89.
RG075

MacKay, Kathryn L. "The Uncompahgre Reservation and the Hill Creek Extension". Utah Historical Quarterly 83, no.3 (Summer 2015): 180-193.
RG075

Madley, Benjamin. "'Unholy Traffic in Human Blood and Souls': Systems of California Indian Servitude under U.S. Rule". Pacific Historical Review 83, no.4 (November 2014): 626-667.
RG075/RG098

Madley, Benjamin. "California's Yuki Indians: Defining Genocide in Native American History". Western Historical Quarterly 39, no.3 (Autumn 2008): 303-332.
RG075

Madley, Benjamin. "Reexamining the American Genocide Debate: Meaning, Historiography, and New Methods". American Historical Review 120, no.1 (February 2015): 98-139.
RG075

Magliari, Michael. "Free Soil, Unfree Labor: Cave Johnson Couts and the Binding of Indian Workers in California, 1850-1867". Pacific Historical Review 73, no.3 (August 2004): 349-389.
RG075

Magnaghi, Russell M. "Sulphur Fork Factory, 1817-1822". Arkansas Historical Quarterly 37, no.2 (Summer 1978): 168-183.
RG075

Magnaghi, Russell M. "The Belle Fontaine Indian Factory, 1805-1808". Missouri Historical Review 75, no.4 (July 1981): 396-416.
RG075/RG107

Manzo, Joseph T. "Emigrant Indian Objections to Kansas Residence". Kansas History 4, no.4 (Winter 1981): 247-254.
RG075

Manzo, Joseph. "Sequent Occupance in Kansas City, Kan. - A Historical Geography of Strawberry Hill". Kansas History 4, no.1 (Spring 1981): 20-29.
RG075

Marak, Andrae Tuennerman, Laura. "'He Don't Show Us Much about Farming': Tohono O'odham Agency and Agricultural Priorities, 1910-1940". Journal of the West 48, no.3 (Summer 2009): 20-25.
RG075

Matheny, Robert L. "Lumbering in the White Mountains of Arizona, 1919-1942". Arizona and the West 18, no.3 (Autumn 1976): 237-256.
RG075

Mathes, Valerie Sherer. "Helen Hunt Jackson and Southern California's Mission Indians". California History 78, no.4 (Winter 1999/00): 262-273.
RG075

Mathes, Valerie Sherer. "Helen Hunt Jackson and the Ponca Controversy". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 39, no.1 (Winter 1989): 42-53.
RG075

Mathes, Valerie Sherer. "Susan LaFlesche Picotte, M.D.: Nineteenth-Century Physician and Reformer". Great Plains Quarterly 13, no.3 (Summer 1993): 172-186.
RG075

Mathes, Valerie Sherer. "Susan LaFlesche Picotte: Nebraska's Indian Physician, 1865-1915". Nebraska History 63, no.4 (Winter 1982): 502-530.
RG075

Mathes, Valerie Sherer. "The California Mission Indian Commission of 1891". California History 72, no.4 (Winter 1993/94): 338-359.
RG075

Matte, Jacqueline Anderson. "Extinction by Reclassification: The MOWA Choctaws of South Alabama and Their Struggle for Federal Recognition". Alabama Review 59, no.3 (July 2006): 163-204.
RG029/RG075/RG163/RG217

Matthew, Glenna. "An Immigrant Community in Indian Territory". Labor History 23, no.3 (Summer 1982): 374-394.
RG075

Mattingly, Ashley. "Question 22: 1940 Census Provides a Glimpse of the Demographics of the New Deal". Prologue 44, no.1 (Summer 2012): 54-60.
RG035/RG048/RG069/RG075

Mazzone, Raphael and Lee Ann Potter. "Documents Related to the Flu Pandemic of 1918". Social Education 70, no.7 (November/December 2006): 393-396.
RG075/RG092

McCullagh, James G. "Galela Leona Walkingstick: A Life of Service as an Indian School Social Worker". Chronicles of Oklahoma 80, no.1 (Spring 2002): 84-101.
RG075/RG077/RG267

McCullagh, James G. "Simon Ralph 'S.R.' Walkingstick: A Cherokee Leader". Chronicles of Oklahoma 96, no.2 (Summer 2018): 202-221.
RG075

McDermott, John D. "What Never Really Happened: Fort Phil Kearny Fiction". Annals of Wyoming 84, no.2 (Spring 2012): 21-30.
RG075/RG393

McDermott, John D., Jr. "Allotment and the Sissetons: Experiments in Cultural Change, 1866-1905". South Dakota History 21, no.1 (Spring 1991): 43-68.
RG075

McDonnell, Janet A. "Land Policy on the Omaha Reservation: Competency Commissions and Forced Fee Patents". Nebraska History 63, no.3 (Fall 1982): 399-411.
RG075

McDonnell, Janet. "Competency Commission and Indian Land Policy, 1913-1920". South Dakota History 11, no.1 (Winter 1980): 21-34.
RG048/RG075

McGinnis, Anthony. "Strike & Retreat: Intertribal Warfare and the Powder River War, 1865-1868". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 30, no.4 (Autumn): 31-41.
RG075

McLoughlin, William G. "Cherokee Nationalism and the Right of Internal Taxation". Prologue 14, no.2 (Summer 1982): 69-80.
RG059/RG075/RG107

McLoughlin, William G. "Cherokee Slaveholders and Baptist Missionaries, 1845-1860". Historian 45, no.2 (February 1983): 147-166.
RG075

McLoughlin, William G. "Georgia's Role in Instigating Cumpulsory Indian Removal". Georgia Historical Quarterly 70, no.4 (Winter 1986): 605-632.
RG075

McLoughlin, William G. "New Angles of Vision on the Cherokee Ghost Dance Movement of 1811-1812". American Indian Quarterly 5, no.4 (November 1979): 317-345.
RG075

McLoughlin, William G. "Thomas Jefferson and the Beginning of Cherokee Nationalism, 1806-1809". William and Mary Quarterly 32, no.4 (October 1975): 547-580.
RG075/RG107

McLoughlin, William G., and Walter H. Conser, Jr. "The Cherokees in Transition: A Statistical Analysis of the Federal Cherokee Census of 1835". Journal of American History 64, no.3 (December 1977): 678-703.
RG075

McMillen, Christian W. "Rain, Ritual, and Reclamation: The Failure of Irrigation on the Zuni and Navajo Reservations, 1883-1914". Western Historical Quarterly 31, no.4 (Winter 2000): 434-456.
RG075/RG279

McPherson, Robert S. "'Only Bullets Talk Now': Tse-ne-gat, Polk, and the 1915 Fight in Bluff". Utah Historical Quarterly 79, no.3 (Summer 2011): 224-249.
RG075/RG094

McPherson, Robert S. "'Too Much Noise in that Bunch across the River:' Ba'alilee and the 1907 Aneth Brawl". Utah Historical Quarterly 77, no.1 (Winter 2009): 26-51.
RG075

McPherson, Robert S. "Boundaries, Bonanzas, and Bickering: Consolidation of the Northern Navajo Frontier, 1870-1905". New Mexico Historical Review 62, no.2 (April 1987): 169-190.
RG075

McPherson, Robert S. "Howard R. Antes and the Navajo Faith Mission: Evangelist of Southeastern Utah". Utah Historical Quarterly 65, no.1 (Winter 1997): 4-24.
RG075

McPherson, Robert S. "Murder and Mapping in the 'Land of Death,' Part I: The Walcott-McNally Incident". Utah Historical Quarterly 81, no.3 (Summer 2013): 249-266.
RG075/RG094

McPherson, Robert S. "Navajos, Mormons, and Henry L. Mitchell: Cauldron of Conflict on the San Juan". Utah Historical Quarterly 55, no.1 (Winter 1987): 50-65.
RG075

McPherson, Robert S. "The Replevied Present: San Juan County, the Southern Utes and What Might Have Been, 1894-1895". Utah Historical Quarterly 79, no.1 (Winter 2011): 52-71.
RG075/RG094

McPherson, Robert S. and Winston B. Hurst. "The Fight at Soldier Crossing, 1884: Military Considerations in Canyon Country". Utah Historical Quarterly 70, no.3 (Summer 2002): 258-281.
RG075/RG094

McPherson, Robert S., Kevin Conti, and Gary Weicks. "Murder and Mapping in 'The Land of Death,' Part II: The Military Cantonment in Monticello". Utah Historical Quarterly 81, no.4 (Fall 2013): 368-385.
RG075/RG094

McSweeney, Jim. "Documented Rights". Prologue 41, no.1 (Spring 2009): 6-9.
RG021/RG036/RG075/RG142

Means, Jeffrey D. "'Indians Shall Do Things in Common': Oglala Lakota Identity and Cattle-Raising on the Pine Ridge Reservation". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 61, no.3 (Autumn 2011): 3-21.
RG075

Meeks, Eric V. "The Tohono O'Odham, Wage Labor, and Resistant Adaptation, 1900-1930". Western Historical Quarterly 34, no.4 (Winter 2003): 469-489.
RG075

Menefee, Leah Collins and Lowell Tiller. "Cutoff Fever, VI: Commissioners versus Alexander - A Partial Retrieve". Oregon Historical Quarterly 79, no.1 (Spring 1978): 4-50.
RG075/RG393

Menefee, Leah Collins, and Lowell Tiller. "Cutoff Fever, II: Planning a Free Immigrant Road". Oregon Historical Quarterly 78, no.1 (March 1977): 41-72.
RG075

Merrell, James H. "The Racial Education of the Catawba Indians". Journal of Southern History 50, no.3 (August 1984): 363-384.
RG075

Metcalf, R. Warren. "Lambs of Sacrifice: Termination, the Mixed-blood Utes, and the Problem of Indian Identity". Utah Historical Quarterly 64, no.4 (Fall 1996): 322-343.
RG075

Metcalf, Warren. "A Precarious Balance: The Northern Utes and the Black Hawk War". Utah Historical Quarterly 57, no.1 (Winter 1989): 24-35.
RG075

Meyer, Melissa L. "'We Cannot Get a Living as We Used To': Dispossession and the White Earth Anishinaabeg, 1889-1920". American Historical Review 96, no.2 (April 1991): 368-394.
RG029/RG075

Meyer, Melissa L. "Signatures and Thumbprints: Ethnicity among the White Earth Anishinaabeg, 1889-1920". Social Science History 14, no.3 (Fall 1990): 305-345.
RG075

Mihesuah, Devon A. "Commonalty for Difference: American Indian Women and History". American Indian Quarterly 20, no.1 (Winter 1996): 15-27.
RG075

Mihesuah, Devon Abbott. "Unfinished Choctaw Justice: The Murder of Charles Wilson and the Execution of Jackson Crow". Chronicles of Oklahoma 86, no.3 (Fall 2008): 290-315.
RG075

Mihesuah, Devon. "Out of the 'Graves of the Polluted Debauches': The Boys of the Cherokee Male Seminary". American Indian Quarterly 15, no.4 (Fall 1991): 503-521.
RG075

Miles, Jo N. "Chasing 'Thunder': The Yakama Warrior, Qualchan, 1855-1858". Journal of the West 56, no.3 (Summer 2017): 15-24.
RG075/RG094

Miles, Jo N. "Chief Patkanim and the Puget Sound War 1855-1856". Journal of the West 58, no.1 (Winter 2019): 29-47.
RG075

Miles, Ray. "'Give Us Our Catholic Priests': The Osage Plea for Freedom of Religion". Chronicles of Oklahoma 66, no.1 (Spring 1988): 52-63.
RG075

Miles, Tiya. "'Circular Reasoning': Recentering Cherokee Women in the Antiremoval Campaigns". American Quarterly 61, no.2 (June 2009): 221-244.
RG075

Miles, Tiya. "The Narrative of Nancy, a Cherokee Woman". Frontiers 29, no.2/3 (2008): 59-81.
RG075

Millbrook, Minnie Dubbs. "The Jordan Massacre". Kansas History 2, no.4 (Winter 1979): 218-230.
RG075/RG094

Miller, Darlis A. and Norman L. Wilson, Jr. "The Resignation of Judge Joseph G. Knapp". New Mexico Historical Review 55, no.4 (October 1980): 335-344.
RG048/RG059/RG075

Miller, Larisa K. "From Courtroom to Research Room: Studying the West in Federal Court Records". Western Legal History 10, no.1-2 (Spring-Summer 1997): 31-57.
RG021/RG075/RG118/RG276

Miller, Larisa K. "The Secret Treaties with California's Indians". Prologue 45, no.3/4 (Fall/Winter 2013): 36-43.
Online version
RG046/RG075/RG287

Miller, Virginia P. "The Changing Role of the Chief on a California Indian Reservation". American Indian Quarterly 13, no.4 (Fall 1989): 447-455.
RG075

Miller, Virginia P. "Whatever Happened to the Yuki?". Indian Historian 8, no.2 (Fall 1975): 6-12.
RG075

Millikan, William. "The Great Treasure of the Fort Snelling Prison Camp". Minnesota History 62, no.1 (Spring 2010): 4-17.
RG075

Miner, H. Craig. "A Corps of Clerks: The Bureaucracy of Industrialization in Indian Territory 1866-1907". Chronicles of Oklahoma 53, no.3 (Fall 1975): 315-322.
RG075

Miner, H. Craig. "Cherokee Sovereignty in the Gilded Age: The Outlet Question". Chronicles of Oklahoma 71, no.2 (Summer 1993): 118-137.
RG048/RG075

Morgan, James F. "The Choctaw Warrants of 1863". Chronicles of Oklahoma 57, no.1 (Spring 1979): 55-66.
RG075

Moses, L. G. "Jack Wilson and the Indian Service: The Response of the BIA to the Ghost Dance Prophet". American Indian Quarterly 5, no.4 (November 1979): 295-316.
RG075

Moses, L. G. "James Mooney and the Peyote Controversy". Chronicles of Oklahoma 56, no.2 (Summer 1978): 127-144.
RG075

Moses, L. G. "James Mooney and Wovaka: An Ethnologists Visit With the Ghost Dance Prophet". Nevada Historical Society Quarterly 23, no.2 (Summer 1980): 71-86.
RG075

Moses, L. G. "Wild West Shows, Reformers, and the Image of the American Indian, 1887-1914". South Dakota History 14, no.3 (Fall 1984): 193-221.
RG075/RG094

Moses, L.G. "'The Father Tells Me So!' Wovoka: The Ghost Dance Prophet". American Indian Quarterly 9, no.3 (Summer 1985): 335-351.
RG075

Moulton, Gary E. "'Voyage to the Arkansas': New Letters of John Ross". Tennessee Historical Quarterly 35, no.1 (Spring 1976): 46-50.
RG075

Moulton, Gary E. "Chief John Ross and Cherokee Removal Finances". Chronicles of Oklahoma 52, no.3 (Fall 1974): 342-359.
RG075

Mumford, Jeremy. "Metis and the Vote in 19th-Century America". Journal of the West 39, no.3 (Summer 2000): 38-45.
RG075

Munch, Francis J. "Villa's Columbus Raid: Practical Politics or German Design?". New Mexico Historical Review 44, no.3 (July 1969): 189-214.
RG059/RG075

Murphy, Justin D. "Wheelock Female Seminary, 1842-1861". Chronicles of Oklahoma 69, no.1 (Spring 1991): 48-61.
RG075

Murphy, Lawrence R. "Master of the Cimarron: Lucien B. Maxwell". New Mexico Historical Review 55, no.1 (January 1980): 5-23.
RG029/RG075/RG094

Myers, Harry C. "Banditti on the Santa Fe Trail". Kansas History 19, no.4 (Winter 1996-1997): 282-292.
RG075/RG094/RG393

Myers, Robert A. "Cherokee Pioneers in Arkansas: The St. Francis Years, 1785-1813". Arkansas Historical Quarterly 56, no.2 (Summer 1997): 127-157.
RG075

Myers, Robert. "Nick Trammell: The Making of an Old Southwest Legend". Arkansas Historical Quarterly 74, no.4 (Winter 2015): 352-378.
RG029/RG075

Nesheim, David A. "Profit, Preservation, and Shifting Definitions of Bison in America". Environmental History 17, no.3 (July 2012): 547-577.
RG075/NARA photos

Newcombe, Barbara T. "'A Portion of the American People': The Sioux Sign a Treaty in Washington in 1858". Minnesota History 45, no.3 (Fall 1976): 82-96.
RG048/RG075

Newsom, D. Earl. "Milton W. Reynolds (Kicking Bird): The Man Who Named Oklahoma 'Land of the Fair God'". Chronicles of Oklahoma 74, no.2 (Summer 1996): 198-217.
RG075

Nichols, Roger L. "A Miniature Venice: Florence, Arizona, 1866-1910". Journal of Arizona History 16, no.4 (Winter 1975): 335-356.
RG049/RG075

Nickens, Paul R. and Kathleen M. Nickens. "Victor of Old San Carlos: Portrait of a Captive Mexican and Apache Tag Band Chief". Journal of Arizona History 56, no.3 (Autumn 2015): 277-322.
RG015/RG075

Nolan, Frederick. "Van C. Smith: 'A Very Companionable Gentleman'". New Mexico Historical Review 72, no.2 (April 1997): 153-170.
RG075

Nolan, Raymond Anthony. "Better Royalties: Federal Policy, the Quapaw Tribe, and Self-Determination, 1900-70". Chronicles of Oklahome 96, no.4 (Winter 2018-19): 428-445.
RG075

Nomura, Gail M. "Significant Lives: Asia and Asian Americans in the History of the U.S. West". Western Historical Quarterly 45, no.1 (Spring 1994): 69-88.
RG075

Norrgard, Chantal. "From Berries to Orchards: Tracing the History of Berrying and Economic Transformation among the Lake Superior Ojibwe". American Indian Quarterly 33, no.1 (Winter 2009): 33-61.
RG075

Norton, Louis Arthur. "Timber for America's Wooden Walls". Naval History 27, no.2 (April 2013): 58-62.
RG045/RG075

Norvell, John E. "From the Halls of Montezuma to the Hills of Gettysburg: One Marine's Journey in Service to His Country". Military Collector & Historian 66, no.2 (Summer 2014): 142-145.
RG075/RG127

O'Neil, Floyd A. and Shauna O'Neil. "The Park City to Fort Thornburgh Road". Utah Historical Quarterly 85, no.2 (Spring 2017): 180-185.
RG075

O'Neil, Floyd, and Stanford J. Layton. "Of Pride and Politics: Brigham Young as Indian Agent". Utah Historical Quarterly 46, no.3 (Summer 1978): 236-250.
RG075

O'Neill, Colleen. "The "Making" of the Navajo Worker: Navajo Households, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and Off-Reservation Wage Work, 1948-1960". New Mexico Historical Review 74, no.4 (October 1999): 375-405.
RG075

O'Sullivan, Meg Devlin. "A Family Affair: Cherokee Conversion to American Board Churches, 1817-1839". Tennessee Historical Quarterly 64, no.4 (Winter 2005): 264-283.
RG075

Oberly, James. "Decision on Duck Creek: Two Green Bay Reservations and Their Boundaries, 1816-1996". American Indian Culture and Research Journal 24, no.3 (2000): 39-76.
RG049/RG075/RG092/RG107

Obermeyer, Brice and John P. Bowes. "'The Lands of My nation': Delaware Indians in Kansas, 1829-1869". Great Plains Quarterly 36, no.1 (Winter 2016): 1-30.
RG075

Oehler, Gottlieb, and David Smith. "A Visit to the Pawnee". Nebraska History 87, no.4 (Winter 2006): 142-172.
RG075

Ogden, Gerald R. "U. S. Department of Agriculture Activities in Navajoland: The 1930s". Associates NAL Today N.S. 3, no.1/2 (January/June 1978): 19-26.
RG075

Oliva, Leo E. "Fort Atkinson on the Santa Fe Trail, 1850-1854". Kansas Historical Quarterly 40, no.2 (Summer 1974): 212-233.
RG075/RG092/RG094/RG393

Olson, Alexander I. "Heritage Schemes: The Curtis Brothers and the Indian Moment of Northwest Boosterism". Western Historical Quarterly 40, no.2 (Summer 2009): 158-178.
RG075

Olson, Greg. "Navigating the White Road: White Cloud's Struggle to Lead the Ioway Along the Path of Acculturation". Missouri Historical Review 99, no.2 (January 2005): 93-114.
RG075

Osburn, Katherine M.B. "'To Build up the Morals of the Tribe': Southern Ute Women's Sexual Behavior and the Office of Indian Affairs, 1895-1932". Journal of Women's History 9, no.3 (Fall 1997): 10-27.
RG075

Osburn, Katherine Marie Birmingham. "The Navajo at the Bosque Redondo: Cooperation, Resistance, and Initiative, 1864-1868". New Mexico Historical Review 60, no.4 (October 1985): 399-413.
RG075

Ostler, Jeffrey. "'The Last Buffalo Hunt' and Beyond: Plains Sioux Economic Strategies in the Early Reservation Period". Great Plains Quarterly 21, no.2 (Spring 2001): 115-130.
RG075

Ostler, Jeffrey. "Conquest and the State: Why the United States Employed Massive Military Force to Suppress the Lakota Ghost Dance". Pacific Historical Review 65, no.2 (May 1996): 217-248.
RG075/RG094

Overbeck, Ruth Ann. "Colbert's Ferry". Chronicles of Oklahoma 57, no.2 (Summer 1979): 212-223.
RG075/RG109

Owens, Kenneth N. "Research Opportunities in Western Territorial History". Arizona and the West 8, no.1 (Spring 1966): 7-18.
RG048/RG049/RG056/RG059/RG075/RG107

Parman, Donald L. "Inconstant Advocacy: The Erosion of Indian Fishing Rights in the Pacific Northwest, 1933-1956". Pacific Historical Review 53, no.2 (May 1984): 163-190.
RG048/RG075

Parman, Donald L. "Lewis Meriam's Letters during the Survey of Indian Affairs 1926-1927". Arizona and the West 24, no.3 (Autumn 1982): 253-280.
RG075

Parman, Donald L. "New Deal Indian Agricultural Policy and the Environment: The Papagos as a Case Study". Agricultural History 66, no.2 (Spring 1992): 23-33.
RG075

Parman, Donald L. "The 'Big Stick' in Indian Affairs: The Bai-a-lil-le Incident in 1909". Arizona and the West 20, no.4 (Winter 1978): 343-360.
RG060/RG075

Parr, Royse. "Ben Harjo's All-Indian Baseball Club". Nine: A Journal of Baseball History and Culture 17, no.2 (Spring 2009): 90-102.
RG075

Paul, R. Eli. "George Wilkins Kendall, Newsman, and a Party of Pleasure Seekers on the Prairie, 1851". Nebraska History 64, no.1 (April 1983): 35-80.
RG075/RG393

Paul, R. Eli. "The Investigation of Special Agent Cooper and Property Damage Claims in the Winter of 1890-1891". South Dakota History 24, no.3/4 (Fall/Winter 1994): 212-235.
RG075/RG094/RG123/RG205

Pearce, Margaret Wickens. "The Hole in the Grid: Reservation Surveys in Lower Michigan". Michigan Historical Review 30, no.2 (Fall 2004): 135-166.
RG075

Peavy, Linda, and Ursula Smith. "World Champions: The 1904 Girls' Basketball Team from Fort Shaw Indian Boarding School". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 51, no.4 (Winter 2001): 2-25.
RG075

Pennington, William D. "Government Policy and Indian Farming on the Cheyenne and Arapho Reservation: 1869-1880". Chronicles of Oklahoma 57, no.2 (Summer 1979): 171-189.
RG075

Pepion, Donald D. "Ethnography of One Family on a 1939 Blackfeet Indian Reservation Farm Project in Montana". Great Plains Quarterly 33, no.3 (Summer 2013): 123-140.
RG075

Perdue, Theda. "Cherokee Planters, Black Slaves, and African Colonization". Chronicles of Oklahoma 60, no.1 (Fall 1982): 322-331.
RG075

Perdue, Theda. "The Conflict Within: The Cherokee Power Structure and Removal". Georgia Historical Quarterly 73, no.3 (Fall 1989): 467-491.
RG075

Perdue, Theda. "The Legacy of Indian Removal". Journal of Southern History 78, no.1 (February 2012): 3-36.
RG075

Perdue, Theda. "Traditionalism in the Cherokee Nation: Resistance to the Constitution of 1827". Georgia Historical Quarterly 66, no.2 (Summer 1982): 159-170.
RG075

Perras, Galen Roger. "The Greater Menace to the Peace of Nations? The 1877 Mills Mission and Direct Canadian-American Diplomatic Relations". Diplomacy & Statecraft 29, no.2 (2018): 143-166.
RG059/RG075/RG094/RG393

Peterson, Charles S. "Big House at Ganado: New Mexican Influence in Northern Arizona". Journal of Arizona History 30, no.1 (Spring 1989): 51-72.
RG075

Peterson, Charles S. "Headgates and Conquest: The Limits of Irrigation on the Navajo Reservation, 1880-1950". New Mexico Historical Review 68, no.3 (July 1993): 269-290.
RG075/NARA photos

Peterson, Guy L. "Four Forts of the South Platte". Periodical 11, no.4 (November 1981): 3-71.
RG069/RG075

Peterson, Susan. "Holy Women and Housekeepers: Women as Teachers on South Dakota Reservations, 1885-1910". South Dakota History 13, no.3 (Fall 1983): 245-260.
RG075/KC FARC

Petro, Diane. "Brother, Can You Spare a Dime? The 1940 Census Employment and Income". Prologue 44, no.1 (Spring 2012): 54-61.
Online version
RG029/RG069/RG075/RG115/RG306

Pfaller, Louis. "'Enemies in '76, Friends in '85': Sitting Bull and Buffalo Bill". Prologue 1, no.2 (Fall 1969): 16-31.
RG075/RG393

Phillips, George Harwood. "Indians in Los Angeles, 1781-1875: Economic Integration, Social Disintegration". Pacific Historical Review 49, no.3 (August 1980): 427-451.
RG075

Philp, Kenneth R. "Dillon S. Myer and the Advent of Termination: 1950-1953". Western Historical Quarterly 19, no.1 (January 1988): 27-59.
RG048/RG075/HST Library

Philp, Kenneth R. "John Collier and the Indians of the Americas: The Dream and the Reality". Prologue 11, no.1 (Fall 1979): 4-21.
RG048/RG075/DDE Library/HST Library

Philp, Kenneth R. "Stride toward Freedom: The Relocation of Indians to Cities, 1952-1960". Western Historical Quarterly 16, no.2 (April 1985): 175-190.
RG048/RG075/DDE Library/HST Library

Philp, Kenneth R. "Termination: A Legacy of the Indian New Deal". Western Historical Quarterly 14, no.2 (April 1983): 165-180.
RG048/RG075

Poten, Constance J. "Robert Yellowtail, the New Warrior". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 39, no.3 (Summer 1989): 36-41.
RG075

Power, Boyd Douglas. "The Irony of Assimilation: Howard Edwards Gansworth and the Burden of Iroquois History". New York History 72, no.1 (January 1991): 4-44.
RG075

Powers, Ramon, and James N. Leiker. "Cholera among the Plains Indians: Perceptions, Causes, Consequences". Western Historical Quarterly 29, no.3 (Autumn 1998): 317-340.
RG075

Powers-Beck, Jeffrey. "'A Role New to the Race': A New History of the Nebraska Indians". Nebraska History 85, no.4 (Winter 2004): 186-199.
RG075

Precht, Jay. "Asserting Tribal Sovereignty through Compact Negotiations: A Case Study of the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana". AIQ 41, no.1 (Winter 2017): 67-92.
RG075

Prechtel-Kluskens, Claire. "Houses of Worship and Religious Activities in Federal Records". NGS Magazine 43, no.1 (January-March 2017): 47-50.
RG021/RG029/RG075/RG095/RG181/RG418

Prechtel-Kluskens, Claire. "The National Archives Catalog". NGS Magazine 43, no.4 (October-December 2017): 40-43.
RG015/RG075

Puisto, Jaakko. "'We Didn't Care for It': The Salish and Kootenai Battle against Termination Policy, 1946-1954". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 52, no.4 (Winter 2002): 48-63.
RG075

Putney, Diane T. "The Canton Asylum for Insane Indians, 1902-1934". South Dakota History 14, no.1 (Spring 1984): 1-30.
RG048/RG075

Putz, Paul. "Jesse 'Cab' Renick: In Search of an Indian Identity". Chronicles of Oklahoma 89, no.1 (Spring 2011): 72-97.
RG029/RG075

Radbourne, Allan. "Great Chief: Hashkeedasillaa of the White Mountain Apaches". Journal of Arizona History 50, no.1 (Spring 2009): 1-58.
RG075/NARA photos

Radbourne, Allan. "The Education of Mickey Free: Conflict and Acculturation in the Arizona-Sonora Borderlands". Journal of Arizona History 46, no.3 (Autumn 2005): 249-268.
RG075

Rader, Benjamin G. "'The Greatest Drama in Indian Life': Experiments in Native American Identity and Resistance at the Haskell Institute Homecoming of 1926". Western Historical Quarterly 35, no.4 (Winter 2004): 429-450.
RG075

Ray, Arthur J. "Native History on Trial: Confessions of an Expert Witness". Canadian Historical Review 84, no.2 (June 2003): 253-273.
RG279

Ray, Dorothy Jean. "Sinrock Mary: From Eskimo Wife to Reindeer Queen". Pacific Northwest Quarterly 75, no.3 (July 1984): 98-107.
RG026/RG075

Rayman, Ronald A. "Joseph Montfort Street: Establishing the Sac and Fox Indian Agency in Iowa Territory, 1838-1840". Annals of Iowa 43, no.4 (Spring 1976): 261-274.
RG075

Rayman, Ronald. "Confrontation at the Fever River Lead Mining District: Joseph Monfort Street vs. Henry Dodge, 1827-1828". Annals of Iowa 44, no.4 (Spring 1978): 278-295.
RG049/RG075

Rayman, Ronald. "The Winnebago Indian School Experiment in Iowa Territory, 1834-1848". Annals of Iowa 44, no.5 (Summer 1978): 359-387.
RG075

Redix, Erik M. "'Our Hope and Our Protection': Misko-biiwaabik (Copper) and Tribal Sovereignty in Michigan". AIQ 41, no.3 (Summer 2017): 224-249.
RG075

Rees, John U. "'To the hungry soul every bitter thing is sweet': Soldiers' Food and Cooking in the War for Independence, Part II". Military Collector and Historian 63, no.1 (Spring 2011): 12-25.
RG015/RG075/RG093

Riding In, James. "Six Pawnee Crania: Historical and Contemporary Issues Associated with the Massacre and Decapitation of Pawnee Indians in 1869". American Indian Culture and Research Journal 16, no.2 (1992): 101-119.
RG075/RG094

Riggs, Christopher K. "American Indians, Economic Development, and Self-Determination in the 1960s". Pacific Historical Review 69, no.3 (August 2000): 431-463.
RG075/LBJ Library

Riggs, Christopher K. "The Irony of American Indian Health Care: The Pueblos, the Five Tribes, and Self-Determination, 1954-1968". American Indian Culture and Research Journal 23, no.4 (1999): 1-22.
RG075/LBJ Library

Riney, Scott. "Power and Powerlessness: The People of the Canton Asylum for Insane Indians". South Dakota History 27, no.1/2 (Spring/Summer 1997): 41-64.
RG075

Rising, Marsha Hoffman. "White Claims for Indian Depredations: Illinois-Missouri-Arkansas Frontier, 1804-32". National Genealogical Society Quarterly 84, no.4 (December 1996): 275-304.
RG075

Roberts, Charles. "A Choctaw Odyssey: The Life of Lesa Phillip Roberts". American Indian Quarterly 14, no.3 (Summer 1990): 259-276.
RG075

Roderick, Janna. "Indian-White Relations in the Washington Territory: The Question of Treaties and Indian Fishing Rights". Journal of the West 16, no.3 (July 1977): 23-34.
RG075

Rogers, Brent M. "A "Distinction between Mormons and Americans': Mormon Indian Missionaries, Federal Indian Policy, and the Utah War". Utah Historical Quarterly 82, no.4 (Fall 2014): 250-271.
RG075/RG360

Rohrs, Richard C. "The Study of Oklahoma History during the Territorial Period". Chronicles of Oklahoma 60, no.2 (Summer 1982): 174-185.
RG075

Roscoe, Will. "'That Is My Road': The Life and Times of a Crow Berdache". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 40, no.1 (Winter 1990): 46-55.
RG075

Rose, Diane M. T. "The Maps, Plans, and Sketches of Herman Ehrenberg". Prologue 9, no.3 (Fall 1977): 162-170.
RG036/RG045/RG048/RG075/RG098

Rosenbaum, David, Lee Ann Potter, and Elizabeth K. Eder. "Letter to, and Paintings by, George Catlin". Social Education 72, no.4 (May/June 2008): 171-176.
RG075

Rosenthal, Nicolas G. "Repositioning Indianness: Native American Organizations in Portland, Oregon, 1959-1975". Pacific Historical Review 71, no.3 (August 2002): 415-438.
RG075

Rosier, Paul C. ""The Real Indians, Who Constitute the Real Tribe": Class, Ethnicity, and IRA Politics on the Blackfeet Reservation". Journal of American Ethnic History 18, no.4 (Summer 1999): 3-39.
RG075

Rosier, Paul C. "'They Are Ancestral Homelands': Race, Place, and Politics in Cold War Native America, 1945-1961". Journal of American History 92, no.4 (March 2006): 1300-1326.
RG059/RG075/RG080/RG127

Rosier, Paul C. "Crossing New Boundaries: American Indians and Twentieth Century U.S. Foreign Policy". Diplomatic History 39, no.5 (November 2015): 955-966.
RG059/RG075/HST Library

Rountree, Helen C. "The Termination and Dispersal of the Nottoway Indians of Virginia". Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 95, no.2 (April 1987): 193-214.
RG075

Rubenstein, Bruce. "To Destroy a Culture: Indian Education in Michigan, 1855-1900". Michigan History 60, no.2 (Summer 1976): 137-160.
RG075

Ryan, Carmelita S. "The Written Record and the American Indian: The Archives of the United States". Western Historical Quarterly 6, no.2 (April 1975): 163-174.
RG075

Rydell, Robert. "Visions of Empire: International Expositions in Portland and Seattle, 1905-1909". Pacific Historical Review 52, no.1 (February 1983): 37-65.
RG048/RG075/RG350

Sabol, Steven. "Comparing American and Russian Internal Colonization: The 'Touch of Civilisation' on the Sioux and Kazakhs". Western Historical Quarterly 43, no.1 (Spring 2012): 29-51.
RG075

Salmon, Roberto Mario. "The Disease Complaint at Bosque Redondo (1864-68)". Indian Historian 9, no.3 (Summer 1976): 2-7.
RG075

Samek, Hans. "No 'Bed of Roses': The Careers of Four Mescalero Indian Agents, 1871-1878". New Mexico Historical Review 57, no.2 (April 1982): 139-157.
RG075

Sanders, Mattea V. "'I Got to Do Something to Keep My Family Up': The CCC-Indian Division Offers a New Deal for the Eastern Band of Cherokees". Prologue 46, no.4 (Winter 2014): 24-34.
Online version
RG075

Satz, Ronald M. "'Tell Those Gray Haired Men What They Should Know': The Hayward Indian Congress of 1934". Wisconsin Magazine of History 77, no.3 (Spring 1994): 196-224.
RG075/NARA photos

Satz, Ronald N. "Indian Policy in the Jacksonian Era: The Old Northwest as a Test Case". Michigan History 60, no.1 (Spring 1976): 71-93.
RG075

Satz, Ronald N. "The Cherokee Trail of Tears: A Sesquicentennial Perspective". Georgia Historical Quarterly 73, no.3 (Fall 1989): 431-466.
RG075/NARA photograph

Saunt, Claudio. "Financing Dispossession: Stocks, Bonds, and the Deportation of Native Peoples in the Antebellum United States". Journal of American History 106, no.2 (September 2019): 315-337.
RG056/RG075

Saunt, Claudio. "Taking Account of Property: Stratification among the Creek Indians in the Early Nineteenth Century". William and Mary Quarterly 57, no.4 (October 2000): 733-760.
RG075/RG217

Saunt, Claudio. "Telling Stories: The Political Uses of Myth and History in the Cherokee and Creek Nations". Journal of American History 93, no.3 (December 2006): 673-697.
RG075

Saunt, Claudio. "The Paradox of Freedom: Tribal Sovereignty and Emancipation during the Reconstruction of Indian Territory". Journal of Southern History 70, no.1 (February 2004): 63-94.
RG029/RG048/RG075/RG105/RG123

Savagian, John C. "The Tribal Reorganization of the Stockbridge-Munsee: Essential Conditions in the Re-Creation of a Native American Community, 1930-1942". Wisconsin Magazine of History 77, no.1 (Autumn 1993): 39-62.
RG075

Schackel, Sandra K. "'The Tales Those Nurses Told!': Public Health Nurses among the Pueblo and Navajo Indians". New Mexico Historical Review 65, no.2 (April 1990): 225-249.
RG075/RG102

Scherer, Joanna Cohan. "A Preponderance of Evidence: The 1852 Omaha Indian Delegation Daguerrotypes". Nebraska History 78, no.3 (Fall 1997): 116-121.
RG075

Schilz, Thomas F. "Plight of the Tonkawas, 1875-1898". Chronicles of Oklahoma 64, no.4 (Winter 1986-87): 68-87.
RG075

Schneider, Richard E. "An Expanded View: Panoramic Photographs at the National Archives". Prologue 29, no.3 (Fall 1997): 244-254.
RG032/RG075/RG092/RG151/RG165/RG241/NARA photos

Schreier, Jesse T. "Indian or Freedman?: Enrollment, Race, and Identity in the Choctaw Nation, 1896-1907". Western Historical Quarterly 42, no.4 (Winter 2011): 459-479.
RG075

Schusky, Ernest L. "The Upper Missouri Indian Agency, 1819-1868". Missouri Historical Review 65, no.3 (April 1971): 249-269.
RG075

Schwartz, E.A. "Sick Hearts: Indian Removal on the Oregon Coast, 1875-1881". Oregon Historical Quarterly 92, no.3 (Fall 1991): 229-264.
RG075

Schwartzman, Grace M., and Susan K. Barnard. "A Trail of Broken Promises: Georgians and Muscogee/Creek Treaties, 1796-1826". Georgia Historical Quarterly 75, no.4 (Winter 1991): 697-718.
RG075

Scott, Craig Roberts. "Medical Holdings in the National Archives: Patient Records prior to World War II". National Genealogical Society Quarterly 82, no.2 (June 1994): 114-130.
RG024/RG026/RG052/RG056/RG071/RG075/RG090/RG094/RG098/RG105/RG109/RG110/RG112/RG249/RG404/RG418

Sculle, Keith A. "'The New Carlisle of the West': Haskell Institute and Big-Time Sports, 1920-1932". Kansas History 17, no.3 (Autumn 1994): 192-208.
RG075/NPRC records

Secunda, Ben. "The Road to Ruin? 'Civilization' and the Origins of a 'Michigan Road Band' of Potawatomi". Michigan Historical Review 34, no.1 (Spring 2008): 119-149.
RG075/RG393

Secunda, W. Ben. "To Cede or Seed? Risk and Identity Among the Woodland Potawatomi During the Removal Period". Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 31, no.1 (Spring 2006): 57-88.
RG075

Shafer, Boyd C. "Lost and Found". American Archivist 18, no.3 (July 1955): 217-223.
RG075

Sherow, James E. and William S. Reeder, Jr. "A Richly Textured Community: Fort Riley, Kansas, and American Indians, 1853-1911". Kansas History 21, no.1 (Spring 1998): 2-17.
RG075/RG094/RG393

Shover, Michele. "John Bidwell and the Rancho Chico Indian Treaty of 1852: Seduction, Betrayal, and Redemption". Dogtown Territorial Quarterly 42, no.4 (Summer 2000): 4-39.
RG075

Shover, Michele. "John Bidwell's Role in the 1863 Indian Removal from Chico". Dogtown Territorial Quarterly 49, no.4 (Spring 2002): 4-24.

Shover, Michele. "The Indian Removal to Round Valley in 1863: A Reconsideration, Part One: Malarial Indians, Muddled Military, and Befuddled Bureaucrats". California Territorial Quarterly 56, no.4 (Winter 2003): 4-21.
RG075

Shover, Michele. "The Indian Removal to Round Valley in 1863: A Reconsideration. Part Two: The Indians' Account: Soldier Savagery". California Territorial Quarterly 57, no.4 (Spring 2004): 4-16.
RG075

Shrout, Anelise Hanson. "A 'Voice of Benevolence from the Western Wilderness': The Politics of Native Philanthropy in the Trans-Mississippi West". Journal of the Early Republic 35, no.4 (Winter 2015): 553-578.
RG075

Siebold, John. "Seaborn Hill: Trader in the Creek Nation and Frontier Businessman, 1808-44". Chronicles of Oklahoma 95, no.3 (Fall 2017): 282-303.
RG075

Silliman, Lee. "The Caroll Trail: Utopian Enterprise". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 24, no.2 (April 1974): 2-17.
RG075

Silvern, Steven E. "Reclaiming the Reservation: The Geopolitics of Wisconsin Anishinaabe Resource Rights". American Indian Culture and Research Journal 24, no.3 (2000): 131-153.
RG075

Silvern, Steven E. "State Centrism, the Equal-Footing Doctrine, and the Historical-Legal Geographies of American Indian Treaty Rights". Historical Geography 30 (2002): 33-58.
RG075

Simmons, Beth. "Setting the Ute Photographic Record Straight through Google's Picasa Face Recognition Tool". Utah Historical Quarterly 82, no.4 (Fall 2014): 306-315.
RG075

Skogen, Larry C. "The Bittersweet Reality of Indian Depredation Cases". Prologue 24, no.3 (Fall 1992): 290-296.
RG069/RG075/RG106/RG111/RG123

Smith, Burton M. "Politics and the Crow Indian Land Cessions". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 36, no.4 (Autumn 1986): 24-37.
RG075

Smith, Burton M. "The Politics of Allotment: The Flathead Indian Reservation as a Test Case". Pacific Northwest Quarterly 70, no.3 (July 1979): 131-140.
RG075

Smith, Jane F. "The Use of Federal Records in Writing Local History: A Case Study". Prologue 1, no.1 (Spring 1969): 29-51.
RG015/RG028/RG029/RG039/RG049/RG056/RG075/RG094/RG107/RG156/ RG233

Smith, Karen L. "The Campaign for Water in Central Arizona, 1890-1903". Arizona and the West 23, no.2 (Summer 1981): 127-148.
RG048/RG049/RG075/RG115

Smith, Laura E. "Modernity, Multiples, and Masculinity: Horace Poolaw's Postcards of Elder Kiowa Men". Great Plains Quarterly 31, no.2 (Spring 2011): 125-145.
RG075

Smith, Marion O. "Murder at Kingston Saltpeter Cave, 1810: The Killer's Account". Georgia Historical Quarterly 72, no.2 (Summer 1988): 298-305.
RG029/RG075

Smith, Robert E. "A Life for a Pair of Boots: The Murder of Shepalina". Chronicles of Oklahoma 69, no.1 (Spring 1991): 26-47.
RG075

Smith, Robert E. "The Wyandot Exploring Expedition of 1839". Chronicles of Oklahoma 55, no.3 (Fall 1977): 282-292.
RG075

Smith, Robert E. "Thomas Moseley, Jr. and the Last Years of the Wyandot Subagency". Pacific Historian 21, no.1 (Spring 1977): 1-20.
RG075

Smith, Samuel D. "Military Sites Archaeology in Tennessee". Tennessee Historical Quarterly 59, no.3 (Fall 2000): 140-157.
RG075/RG094

Smith, Timothy B. "David Wilson Reed: The Father of Shiloh National Military Park". Annals of Iowa 62, no.3 (Summer 2003): 333-359.
RG075/RG079/RG092/RG094/RG107

Smith, Timothy B. "DeLong Rice: Shiloh's Poet Preservationist". Tennessee Historical Quarterly 63, no.2 (Summer 2004): 128-143.
RG075/RG092

Smits, David D. "The Frontier Army and the Destruction of the Buffalo: 1865-1883". Western Historical Quarterly 25, no.3 (Autumn 1994): 312-338.
RG075

Smoak, Gregory E. "The Mormons and the Ghost Dance of 1890". South Dakota History 16, no.3 (Fall 1986): 269-294.
RG075

Snyder, Christina. "The Rise and Fall and Rise of Civilizations: Indian Intellectual Culture during the Removal Era". Journal of American History 104, no.2 (September 2017): 386-409.
RG075

Socolofsky, Homer E. "Wyandot Floats". Kansas Historical Quarterly 36, no.3 (Autumn 1970): 241-304.
RG075

Spence, Mark David. "Crown of the Continent, Backbone of the World: The American Wilderness Ideal and Blackfeet Exclusion from Glacier National Park". Environmental History 1, no.3 (July 1996): 29-49.
RG075/RG079

Speroff, Leon. "Carlos Montezuma's Heroic Journey-and His Return to the Yavapai". Prologue 36, no.3 (Fall 2004): 38-47.
RG075

Spores, Ronald. "Too Small a Place: The Removal of the Willamette Valley Indians, 1850-1856". American Indian Quarterly 17, no.2 (Spring 1993): 171-191.
RG075

Stagg, J. C. A. "Between Black Rock and a Hard Place: Peter B. Porter's Plan for an Invasion of Canada in 1812". Journal of the Early Republic 19, no.3 (Fall 1999): 385-422.
RG075/RG107/RG233

Stagg, J. C. A. "George Mathews and John McKee: Revolutionizing East Florida, Mobile, and Pensacola in 1812". Florida Historical Quarterly 85, no.3 (Winter 2007): 269-296.
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Stagg, J. C. A. "Setting the Stage for Reappraisal: The Papers of James Madison". Prologue 21, no.1 (Spring 1989): 56-67.
RG059/RG117/RG075/RG094

Stamm, Henry E. "The Peace Policy at Wind River: The James Irwin Years, 1871-1877". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 41, no.3 (Summer 1991): 56-69.
RG075

Stamm, Henry E., IV. "Range Wars: Cowboys and Indians in the Wind River Basin, 1880-1890". Journal of the West 38, no.1 (January 1999): 48-55.
RG075

Stark, Heidi Kiiwetinepinesiik. "Marked by Fire: Anishinaabe Articulations of Nationhood in Treaty Making with the United States and Canada". American Indian Quarterly 36, no.2 (Spring 2012): 119-149.
RG046/RG075

Steen-Adams, Michelle M., Nancy Langston, and David J. Mladenoff. "White Pine in the Northern Forests: An Ecological and Management History of White Pine on the Bad River Reservation of Wisconsin". Environmental History 12, no.3 (July 2007): 614-648.
RG048/RG075

Steinke, Christopher. "'Here is my country': Too Ne's Map of Lewis and Clark in the Great Plains". William & Mary Quarterly 71, no.4 (October 2014): 589-610.
RG075/RG107

Stevens, Michael E. "Catholic and Protestant Missionaries among Wisconsin Indians: The Territorial Period". Wisconsin Magazine of History 58, no.2 (Winter 1974/1975): 140-148.
RG075

Stewart, Omer C. "Peyotism in Montana". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 33, no.2 (Spring 1983): 2-15.
RG075

Stewart, Omer C. "Temoke Band of Shoshone and the Oasis Concept". Nevada Historical Society Quarterly 23, no.4 (Winter 1980): 246-261.
RG075

Stricklin, Dawn C. "Namesakes, Name Changes, and Conflicting Evidence: The Search for the Mother of John Little Crow". National Genealogical Society Quarterly 94, no.4 (December 2006): 245-258.
RG029/RG075

Sullivan, David M. "The Journal of John George Reynolds, 1st Lieutenant, U.S.M.C.". Military Collector and Historian 62, no.4 (Winter 2010): 255-272.
RG075

Sunseri, Charlotte K. "Capitalism as Nineteenth-Century Colonialism and Its Impacts on Native Californians". Ethnohistory 64, no.4 (October 2017): 471-495.
RG075

Svingen, Orlan J. "Reservation Self-Sufficiency: Stock Raising vs. Farming on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation 1900-1914". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 31, no.4 (October 1981): 14-23.
RG075

Svingen, Orlan J. "The Case of Spotted Hawk and Little Whirlwind: An American Indian Dreyfus Affair". Western Historical Quarterly 15, no.3 (July 1984): 281-297.
RG075

Sweeney, Edwin R. "'One of Heaven's Heroes': A Mexican General Pays Tribute to the Honor and Courage of a Chiricahua Apache". Journal of Arizona History 36, no.3 (Autumn 1995): 209-232.
RG075/RG393

Sweeney, Edwin R. "Cochise and the Prelude to the Bascom Affair". New Mexico Historical Review 64, no.4 (October 1989): 427-446.
RG393/RG075

Sweeney, Edwin R. "Mangas Coloradas and Apache Diplomacy: Treaty-Making with Chihuahua and Sonora, 1842-43". Journal of Arizona History 39, no.1 (Spring 1998): 1-22.
RG075/RG393

Sweet, Jameson. "Native Suffrage: Race, Citizenship, and Dakota Indians in the Upper Midwest". Journal of the Early Republic 39, no.1 (Spring 2019): 99-109.
RG075

Sylvester, Arthur Gibbs. "Name Switches and Aliases: The Genealogist's Bugbears". Maine Genealogist 22, no.2 (May 2000): 63-70.
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Szasz, Margaret Connell. "Federal Boarding Schools and the Indian Child: 1920-1960". South Dakota History 7, no.4 (Fall 1977): 371-384.
RG075

Tappan, William Henry. "'A great place for gambling whiskey drinking & roguery': A Fort Childs Diary, 1848". Nebraska History 82, no.3 (Fall 2001): 90-121.
RG075/RG094/RG393

Tate, Michael L. "From Scout to Doughboy: The National Debate over Integrating American Indians into the Military". Western Historical Quarterly 17, no.4 (October 1986): 417-437.
RG075/RG094/RG120

Taylor, Graham D. "The Tribal Alternative to Bureaucracy: The Indian's New Deal, 1933-1945". Journal of the West 11, no.1 (January 1974): 128-142.
RG075

Taylor, Morris F. "Campaigns against the Jicarilla Apache, 1854". New Mexico Historical Review 44, no.4 (October 1969): 269-291.
RG075/RG098/RG393

Taylor, Morris F. "The Mail Station and the Military at Camp on Pawnee Fork, 1859-1860". Kansas Historical Quarterly 36, no.1 (Spring 1970): 27-39.
RG028/RG075/RG094

Tesdahl, Eugene R.H. "Lead, Slavery, and Black Personhood in Wisconsin". Wisconsin Magazine of History 102, no.4 (Summer 2019): 17-27.
RG029/RG075

Theisen, Lee Scott. "The Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs". Pacific Historian 22, no.2 (Summer 1978): 184-195.
RG075

Theobald, Brianna. "Nurse, Mother, Midwife - Susie Walking Bear Yellowtail and the Struggle for Crow Women's Reproductive Anatomy". Montana 66, no.3 (Autumn 2016): 17-35.
RG075

Thompson, Jerry, ed. "An Indian Superintendent at the Battle of Valverde: The Civil War Letters of James L. Collins". Southwestern Historical Quarterly 103, no.2 (October 1999): 214-229.
RG075/RG153/RG393

Thompson, Peter. "The Fight for Life: New Mexico Indians, Health Care, and the Reservation Period". New Mexico Historical Review 69, no.2 (April 1994): 145-161.
RG075

Thorne, Tanis C. "The Indian Beverly Hillbillies: Displacement, Rituals of Place, and the First Wave of Urbanization in the 1920s". Journal of the West 46, no.2 (Spring 2007): 75-87.
RG048/RG075

Thorne, Tanis. "Indian Water Rights in Southern California in the Progressive Era: A Case Study". Western Legal History 27, no.2 (Summer-Fall 2014): 199-228.
RG075

Thorpe, Grace F. "The Jim Thorpe Family: From Wisconsin to Indian Territory, Part 1". Chronicles of Oklahoma 59, no.1 (Spring 1971): 91-105.
RG075

Thrush, Coll. "City of the Changers: Indigenous People and the Transformation of Seattle's Watersheds". Pacific Historical Review 75, no.1 (February 2006): 89-117.
RG075

Tiro, Karim M. "The View from Piqua Agency: The War of 1812, the White River Delawares, and the Origins of Indian Removal". Journal of the Early Republic 35, no.1 (Spring 2015): 25-54.
RG075/RG107

Tollefson, Kenneth D. "The Political Survival of Landless Puget Sound Indians". American Indian Quarterly 16, no.2 (Spring 1992): 213-235.
RG075/RG123

Tong, Benson. "Allotment, Alcohol, and the Omahas". Great Plains Quarterly 17, no.1 (Winter 1997): 19-33.
RG075/FRC-KC

Torrez, Robert J. "'El Bornes': La Tierra Amarilla and T. D. Burns". New Mexico Historical Review 56, no.2 (April 1981): 161-175.
RG075/RG094/RG109

Torrez, Robert J. "The San Juan Gold Rush of 1860 and Its Effect on the Development of Northern New Mexico". New Mexico Historical Review 63, no.3 (July 1988): 257-272.
RG075/RG098/RG393

Trafzer, Clifford E., and Richard D. Scheuerman. "'This Land Is Your Land and You Are Being Robbed of It': Dispossession of Palouse Indian Land, 1860-1880". Idaho Yesterdays 29, no.4 (Winter 1986): 2-12.
RG075

Trennert, Robert A. "'And the sword will give way to the spelling-book': Establishing the Phoenix Indian School". Journal of American History 23, no.1 (Spring 1982): 35-58.
RG048/RG075

Trennert, Robert A. "A Resurrection of Native Arts and Crafts: The St. Louis World's Fair, 1904". Missouri Historical Review 87, no.3 (April 1993): 274-292.
RG075

Trennert, Robert A. "Educating Indian Girls at Nonreservation Boarding Schools, 1878-1920". Western Historical Quarterly 13, no.3 (July 1982): 271-290.
RG075

Trennert, Robert A. "Fairs, Expositions, and the Changing Image of Southwestern Indians, 1876-1904". New Mexico Historical Review 62, no.2 (April 1987): 127-150.
RG075

Trennert, Robert A. "From Carlisle to Phoenix: The Rise and Fall of the Indian Outing System, 1878-1930". Pacific Historical Review 52, no.3 (August 1983): 267-291.
RG075

Trennert, Robert A. "Indian Policy on the Santa Fe Road: The Fitzpatrick Controversy of 1847-1848". Kansas History 1, no.4 (Winter 1978): 243-253.
RG075

Trennert, Robert A. "Indian Sore Eyes: The Federal Campaign to Control Trachoma in the Southwest, 1910-40". Journal of the Southwest 32, no.2 (Summer 1990): 121-149.
RG075/NARA photos

Trennert, Robert A. "John H. Stout and the Grant Peace Policy among the Pimas". Arizona and the West 28, no.2 (Spring 1986): 45-68.
RG048/RG075

Trennert, Robert A. "Mary L. Eldridge: Serving God and Country on the San Juan". New Mexico Historical Review 77, no.2 (Spring 2002): 145-172.
RG075

Trennert, Robert A. "Peaceably if They Will, Forcibly, if They Must: The Phoenix Indian School, 1890-1901". Journal of Arizona History 20, no.3 (Autumn 1979): 297-322.
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Trennert, Robert A. "Superwomen in Indian Country: U.S.I.S Field Nurses in Arizona and New Mexico, 1928-1940". Journal of Arizona History 41, no.1 (Spring 2000): 31-56.
RG075/NARA photos

Trennert, Robert A. "The Business of Indian Removal: Deporting the Potawatomi from Wisconsin". Wisconsin Magazine of History 63, no.1 (Autumn 1979): 36-50.
RG075

Trennert, Robert A. "The Federal Government and Indian Health in the Southwest: Tuberculosis and the Phoenix East Farm Sanitorium, 1909-1955". Pacific Historical Review 65, no.1 (February 1996): 61-84.
RG075

Trennert, Robert A. "The Fur Trader as Indian Administrator: Conflict of Interest or Wise Policy?". South Dakota History 5, no.1 (Winter 1974): 1-19.
RG075

Trennert, Robert A. "Victorian Morality and the Supervision of Indian Women Working in Phoenix, 1906-1930". Journal of Social History 22, no.1 (Fall 1988): 113-128.
RG048/RG075

Treuer, David R. "The Rhetoric of Reservoirs". Minnesota History 53, no.4 (Winter 1992): 156-162.
RG075

Truden, John. "Mennonite Missionary S.S. Haury's Account of the Running Buffalo Shooting, 1884". Chronicles of Oklahoma 95, no.4 (Winter 2017-18): 472-479.
RG075/RG094

Truden, John. "The Evans and Clark Families: Borderlands Legacies in Western Oklahoma, 1875-1950". Chronicles of Oklahoma 96, no.2 (Summer 2018): 178-201.
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Turcheneske, John A. "Disaster at White Tail: The Fort Sill Apaches' First Years at Mescalero, 1913-1923". New Mexico Historical Review 53, no.2 (April 1978): 109-132.
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Turcheneske, John Anthony, Jr. "The United States Congress and Release of the Apache Prisoners of War at Fort Sill". Chronicles of Oklahoma 54, no.2 (Summer 1976): 199-226.
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Turner, Alvin O. "Journey to Sainthood: David Pendleton Oakerhater's Better Way". Chronicles of Oklahoma 70, no.2 (Summer 1992): 116-143.
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Turner, James E. "The Pima and Maricopa Villages: Oasis at a Cultural Crossroads, 1846-1873". Journal of Arizona History 39, no.4 (Winter 1998): 345-378.
RG075/RG098

Tusler, Megan. "Toward a Native Archive: Chicago's Relocation Photos, Indian Labor, and Indigenous Public Text". AIQ 42, no.3 (Summer 2018): 375-410.
RG075

Unrau, William E. "Indian Water Rights to the Middle Arkansas: The Case for the Kaws". Kansas History 5, no.1 (Spring 1982): 52-69.
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Unrau, William E. "The Ottawa Indian University: C. C. Hutchinson, the Baptists, and Land Fraud in Kansas". Arizona and the West 25, no.3 (Autumn 1983): 229-244.
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Unrau, William F. "Indian Agent vs. the Army: Some Background Notes on the Kiowa-Comanche Treaty of 1865". Kansas Historical Quarterly 30, no.2 (Summer 1964): 129-152.
RG075

Urlich, Roberta. "Empty Promises, Empty Nets". Oregon Historical Quarterly 100, no.2 (Summer 1999): 134-157.
RG075

Usner, Daniel H. "'A Savage Feast They Made of It': John Adams and the Paradoxical Origins of Federal Indian Policy". Journal of the Early Republic 33, no.4 (Winter 2013): 607-641.
RG075

Usner, Daniel H., Jr. "From Bayou Teche to Fifth Avenue: Crafting a New Market for Chitimacha Indian Baskets". Journal of Southern History 79, no.2 (May 2013): 339-374.
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Utley, Robert M. "Origins of the Great Sioux War: The Brown-Anderson Controversy Revisited". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 42, no.4 (Autumn 1992): 48-52.
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Utley, Robert M. "The Bozeman Trail Before John Bozeman". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 53, no.2 (Summer 2003): 21-31.
RG075

Van De Logt, Mark. "'The Land Is Always with Us': Removal, Allotment, and Industrial Development and Their Effects on Ponca Tribalism". Chronicles of Oklahoma 83, no.3 (Fall 2005): 326-341.
RG075

Vigil, Kiara M. "Who Was Henry Standing Bear? Remembering Lakota Activism from the Early Twentieth Century". Great Plains Quarterly 37, no.3 (Summer 2017): 157-182.
RG075

Vlasich, James A. "Postwar Pueblo Indian Agriculture: Modernization versus Tradition in the Era of Agribusiness". New Mexico Historical Review 76, no.4 (October 2001): 352-381.
RG075

Vlasich, James A. "Transitions in Pueblo Agriculture, 1838-1948". New Mexico Historical Review 55, no.1 (January 1980): 25-46.
RG075

Vogt-O'Connor, Diane. "NARA's Oldest Partnerships: Affiliated Archives". Prologue 38, no.2 (Summer 2006): 44-52.
Online version
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Wachhold, Allen. "Frank Golder as an Alaska Teacher 1899-1902". Alaska Journal 9, no.1 (Winter 1979): 38-42.
RG075

Waggoner, Linda M. "On Trial: The Washington R*dskins' Wily Mascot: Coach William 'Lone Star' Dietz". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 63, no.1 (Spring 2013): 24-44.
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Waggoner, Linda M. "Sibley's Winnebago Prisoners: Deconstructing Race and Recovering Kinship in the Dakota War of 1862". Great Plains Quarterly 33, no.1 (Winter 2013): 25-48.
RG075

Wallace, Anthony F. C. "Prelude to Disaster: The Course of Indian-White Relations Which Led to the Black Hawk War of 1832". Wisconsin Magazine of History 65, no.4 (Summer 1982): 247-288.
RG075/RG09

Wallace, Jerry. "What Are Affiliated Archives?". CRM 22, no.2 (1999): 42-43.
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Warren, Kim. ""All Indian Trails Lead to Lawrence, October 27 to 30, 1926": American Identity and the Dedication of Haskell Institute's Football Stadium". Kansas History 30, no.1 (Spring 2007): 2-19.
RG075

Warren, Louis S. "Wage Work in the Sacred Circle: The Ghost Dance as Modern Religion". Western Historical Quarterly 46, no.2 (Summer 2015): 141-168.
RG075

Warren, Stephen A. "The Baptists, the Methodists, and the Shawnees: Conflicting Cultures in Indian Territory, 1833-1834". Kansas History 17, no.3 (Autumn 1994): 148-161.
RG075

Warren, Stephen and Ben Barnes. "Salvaging the Salvage Anthropologists: Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin, Carl Voegelin, and the Future of Ethnohistory". Ethnohistory 65, no.2 (April 2018): 189-214.
RG075

Weeks, Charles J. "The Eastern Cherokee and the New Deal". North Carolina Historical Review 53, no.3 (July 1976): 303-319.
RG075

Weisiger, Marsha. "Gendered Injustice: Navajo Livestock Reduction in the New Deal Era". Western Historical Quarterly 38, no.4 (Winter 2007): 437-455.
RG075

Wells, Samuel J. "International Causes of the Treaty of Mount Dexter, 1805". Journal of Mississippi History 48, no.3 (August 1986): 177-185.
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Wells, Samuel J. "Rum, Skins, and Powder: A Choctaw Interpreter and the Treaty of Mount Dexter". Chronicles of Oklahoma 61, no.4 (Winter 1983-84): 422-428.
RG075

Wendel, Linda Ford. "Planting the 'Long Rooted Grass': The Eufaula Boarding School for Girls, 1910-1962". Chronicles of Oklahoma 88, no.4 (Winter 2010-11): 416-437.
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Wenger, Tisa. "'We Are Guaranteed Freedom': Pueblo Indians and the Category of Religion in the 1920s". History of Religions 45, no.2 (November 2005): 89-113.
RG075

Wessel, Thomas R. "Agent of Acculturation: Farming on the Northern Plains Reservations, 1880-1910". Agricultural History 60, no.2 (Spring 1986): 233-245.
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Wessel, Thomas R. "Phantom Experiment Station: Government Agriculture of the Zuni Reservation". Agricultural History 61, no.4 (Fall 1987): 1-12.
RG075

West, Carroll Van. "Coulson and the Clark's Fork Bottom". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 35, no.4 (Autumn 1985): 42-55.
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West, Elliott. "The Nez Perce and Their Trials: Rethinking America's Indian Wars". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 60, no.3 (Autumn 2010): 3-18.
RG075

West, Patsy. "Abiaka, or Sam Jones, in Context: The Mikasuki Ethnogenesis through the Third Seminole War". Florida Historical Quarterly 94, no.3 (Winter 2016): 366-410.
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Whalen, Kevin. "Beyond School Walls: Indigenous Mobility at Sherman Institute". Western Historical Quarterly 49, no.3 (Autumn 2018): 275-297.
RG075

Whalen, Kevin. "Indian School, Company Town: Outing Workers from Sherman Institute at Fontana Farms Company, 1907-1930". Pacific Historical Review 86, no.2 (May 2017): 290-321.
RG075

White, Bruce M. "The Power of Whiteness or, The Life and Times of Joseph Rolette Jr". Minnesota History 56, no.4 (Winter 1998-1999): 178-197.
RG075

White, Cody. "Homes on the Range: The Bureau of Indian Affairs Industrial Surveys of the 1920s". Prologue 49, no.3 (Fall 2017): 54-61.
Online version
RG075

White, Cody. "The CCC Indian Division". Prologue 48, no.2 (Summer 2016): 52-59.
Online version
RG075

White, Richard. "Indian Land Use and Environmental Change: Island County, Washington: A Case Study". Arizona and the West 17, no.4 (Winter 1975): 327-338.
RG075

White, Richard. "The Winning of the West: The Expansion of the Western Sioux in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries". Journal of American History 65, no.2 (September 1978): 319-343.
RG075

Whiteley, Peter M. "Reconnoitering 'Pueblo' Ethnicity: The 1852 Tesuque Delegation to Washington". Journal of the Southwest 45, no.3 (Autumn 2003): 437-519.
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Whiteley, Peter. "Burning Culture: Auto-Da-Fe at Oraibi". History and Anthropology 6, no.1 (1992): 46-85.
RG075

Wickett, Murray R. "The Fear of 'Negro Domination': The Rise of Segregation and Disenfranchisement in Oklahoma". Chronicles of Oklahoma 78, no.1 (Spring 2000): 44-65.
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Williams, Gary. "The Tribes' Trees: Montana's Flathead Indian Reservation and BIA Timber Management". Associates NAL Today n.s. 3, no.1/2 (January/June 1978): 27-30.
RG075

Williams, W.D. "Louis Bringier and His Description of Arkansas in 1812". Arkansas Historical Quarterly 48, no.2 (Summer 1989): 108-136.
RG075

Wilson, Raymond. "Establishing Canyon de Chelly National Monument: A Study in Navajo and Government Relations". New Mexico Historical Review 51, no.2 (April 1976): 109-120.
RG075/RG079

Wilson, Raymond. "Forty Years to Judgement: The Santee Sioux Claims Case". Minnesota History 47, no.7 (Fall 1981): 284-291.
RG075

Wilson, Terry P. "Osage Indian Women during a Century of Change, 1870-1980". Prologue 14, no.4 (Winter 1982): 185-201.
RG075

Wilson, Terry P. "Osage Oxonian: The Heritage of John Joseph Mathews". Chronicles of Oklahoma 59, no.3 (Fall 1981): 264-293.
RG075

Wingo, Rebecca S. "Picturing Indian Health: Dr. Ferdinand Showmaker's Traveling Photographs from the Crow Reservation, 1910-1918". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 66, no.4 (Winter 2016): 24-45.
RG075

Winkler, Albert. "The Circleville Massacre: A Brutal Incident in Utah's Black Hawk War". Utah Historical Quarterly 55, no.1 (Winter 1987): 4-21.
RG075

Winkler, Albert. "The Ute Mode of War in the Conflict of 1865-68". Utah Historical Quarterly 60, no.4 (1992): 300-318.
RG075

Wishart, David J. "The Redemption of James Whitewater". Nebraska History 82, no.4 (Winter 2001): 180-189.
RG075

Wishart, David. "The Death of Edward McMurty". Great Plains Quarterly 19, no.1 (Winter 1999): 5-21.
RG075

Witgen, Michael. "Seeing Red: Race, Citizenship, and Indigeneity in the Old Northwest". Journal of the Early Republic 38, no.4 (Winter 2018): 581-611.
RG075/RG360

Wojcik, Eva. "Trust and Survival: AWOL Hunkpapa Indian Family Prisoners of War at Fort Sully, 1890-1891". American Indian Quarterly 32, no.3 (Summer 2008): 275-296.
RG075/RG094

Wood, David L. "American Indian Farmland and the Great War". Agricultural History 55, no.3 (July 1981): 249-265.
RG048/RG075

Woods, Fred E. "The Idaho Territorial Penitentiary's First Female Inmate". Idaho Yesterdays 40, no.4 (Winter 1997): 14-15.
RG075

Woodworth-Ney, Laura. "Negotiating Boundaries of Territory and 'Civilization': The Coeur d' Alene Indian Reservation Agreement Councils, 1873-1889". Pacific Northwest Quarterly 94, no.1 (Winter 2002/2003): 27-41.
RG075

Woodworth-Ney, Laura. "The Diaries of a Day-School Teacher: Daily Realities on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, 1932-1942". South Dakota History 24, no.3/4 (Fall/Winter 1994): 194-211.
RG075

Woolworth, Alan R. "Adrian J. Ebell, Photographer and Journalist of the Dakota War of 1862". Minnesota History 54, no.2 (Summer 1994): 87-92.
RG029/RG075

Wrone, David R. "Indian Treaties and the Democratic Idea". Wisconsin Magazine of History 70, no.2 (Winter 1986-1987): 83-106.
RG011/RG075

Young, Marjorie Hall. "'Stars in a Dark Night': The Education of Indian Youth at Choctaw Academy". Chronicles of Oklahoma 75, no.3 (Fall 1997): 280-305.
RG075

Young, Mary. "Racism in Red and Black: Indians and Other Free People of Color in Georgia Law, Politics, and Removal Policy". Georgia Historical Quarterly 73, no.3 (Fall 1989): 492-518.
RG075

Young, Mary. "The Exercise of Sovereignty in Cherokee Georgia". Journal of the Early Republic 10, no.1 (Spring 1990): 43-63.
RG075/RG094

Youngkin, S. Douglas. "'Hostile and Friendly': The 'Pygmalion Effect' at Cheyenne River Agency, 1873-1877". South Dakota History 7, no.4 (Fall 1977): 402-421.
RG075

Zellar, Gary. "Occupying the Middle Ground: African Creeks in the First Indian Home Guard, 1862-1865". Chronicles of Oklahoma 76, no.1 (Spring 1998): 48-71.
RG029/RG075/RG094/RG153/RG407

Zesch, Scott. "The Search for Alice Todd". Journal of the West 44, no.2 (Spring 2005): 73-80.
RG075

Zimmer, Eric Steven. "A President in Indian Country: Calvin Coolidge and Lakota Diplomacy in the Summer of 1927". Great Plains Quarterly 37, no.3 (Summer 2017): 215-234.
RG075

Zimmer, Eric Steven. "Settlement Sovereignty: The Meswaki Fight for Self-Governance, 1856-1937". Annals of Iowa 73, no.4 (Fall 2014): 311-347.
RG075

Zissu, Erik M. "Conscription, Sovereignty, and Land: American Indian Resistance during World War I". Pacific Historical Review 64, no.4 (November 1995): 537-566.
RG075

Zontek, Ken. "Hunt, Capture, Raise, Increase: The People Who Saved the Bison". Great Plains Quarterly 15, no.2 (Spring 1995): 133-149.
RG075

Zwink, Timothy A. "E. W. Wynkoop and the Bluff Creek Council, 1866". Kansas Historical Quarterly 43, no.2 (Summer 1977): 217-239.
RG075

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Contents

The first Treaty of Fort Laramie, signed in 1851, attempted to resolve disputes between tribes and the US Government, as well as among tribes themselves, in the modern areas of Montana, Wyoming, Nebraska, and North and South Dakota. It set out that the tribes would make peace among one another, allow for certain outside access to their lands (for activities such as travelling, surveying, and the construction of some government outposts and roads), and that tribes would be responsible for wrongs committed by their people. In return, the US Government would offer protection to the tribes, and pay an annuity of $50,000 per year. [4] [5]

No land covered by the treaty was claimed by the US at the time of signing. The five “respective territories” of the participating tribes – Sioux, Arapaho and Cheyenne, Crow, Assiniboine, Arikara, Hidatsa [d] and Mandan – were defined. North of the Sioux, the Arikara, Hidatsa and Mandan held a joint territory. The territory of the Crows extended westward from that of their traditional enemies [6] : 103, 105, 134–6 in the Sioux tribe. The Powder River divided the two lands. [7] : 595

When the Senate reduced the annuity to 10 years from originally 50, all tribes except the Crow accepted the cut. Nevertheless, the treaty was recognized as being in force. [7] : 594

The 1851 treaty had a number of shortcomings which contributed to the deterioration of relations, and subsequent violence over the next several years. From an inter-tribal view, the lack of any “enforcement provisions” protecting the 1851 boundaries proved a drawback for the Crow and the Arikara, Hidatsa and Mandan. [8] : 87 The federal government never kept its obligation to protect tribal resources and hunting grounds, and only made a single payment toward the annuity. [4] [5] [9]

Although the federal government operated via representative democracy, the tribes did so through consensus, and although local chiefs signed the treaty as representatives, they had limited power to control others who themselves had not consented to the terms. This of course is impossible to confirm as the Indians had no writing and hence no way of recording their political philosophy. The discovery of gold in the west, and the construction of the Union Pacific Railroad, led to substantially increased travel through the area, largely outside the 1851 Sioux territory. This increasingly led to clashes between the tribes, settlers, and the US government, and eventually open war between the Sioux (and the Cheyenne and Arapaho refugees from the Sand Creek massacre in Colorado, 1864) [10] : 168–70 and the whites in 1866. [4] [5] [9]

None of the other tribes signing the 1851 treaty engaged in battle with the US soldiers, [11] : LVII [12] : 54 [13] : 161 [14] : xi and most allied the Army. [8] : 91 [12] : 127 [13] : 161 [15] : 129 With the 1851 intertribal peace soon broken, [16] : 572–3 [17] : 226, 228 [18] : 103 [19] : 119, 125–140, 178 the Arikara, Hidatsa and Mandan called for US military support against raiding Sioux Indians in 1855. [12] : 106 By summer 1862, the three tribes had abandoned all their permanent villages of earth lodges in the treaty territory south of the Missouri, which was now under Sioux control, and lived together in Like-a-Fishhook Village north of the river. [12] : 108 [20] : 408

In the mid-1850s, the western Sioux bands crossed the Powder River and entered the Crow treaty territory. [21] : 340 Sioux chief Red Cloud organized a war party against a Crow camp at the mouth of Rosebud River in 1856. [19] : 119–124 Despite the Crows fighting ". large-scale battles with invading Sioux" near present-day Wyola in Montana, [14] : 84 the Sioux had taken over the western Powder River area by 1860. [22] : 127

In 1866 the United States Department of the Interior called on tribes to negotiate safe passage through the Bozeman Trail, while the United States Department of War moved Henry B. Carrington, along with a column of 700 men into the Powder River Basin, sparking Red Cloud's War. [23] However, most of the wagon track to the city of Bozeman “crossed land guaranteed to the Crows under the 1851 treaty” [e] “. the Sioux attacked the United States anyway, claiming the Yellowstone was now their land.” [8] : 89 Red Cloud’s war “. appeared to be a great Sioux war to protect their land. And it was – but the Sioux had only recently conquered this land from other tribes and now defending the territory both from other tribes” [18] : 116 and the passing through of whites. [10] : 170, note 13 [24] : 408 [25] : 46 [26] : 20 During the war, the Crows sided with the soldiers in the isolated garrisons. [27] : 91 [28] : 67 Crow warrior Wolf Bow urged the Army to, “Put the Sioux Indians in their own country, and keep them from troubling us.” [28] : 69

After losing resolve to continue the war, following defeat in the Fetterman Fight, sustained guerrilla warfare by the Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapaho, exorbitant rates for freight through the area, and difficulty finding contractors to work the rail lines, the US Government, organized the Indian Peace Commission to negotiate an end to ongoing hostilities. [2] [29] A peace counsel chosen by the government arrived on April 19, 1868, at Fort Laramie, in what would later become the state of Wyoming. The outcome would be the second treaty of Fort Laramie Treaty, signed in 1868. [29] [30] : 2

The treaty was laid out in a series of 17 articles:

Article I Edit

Article one called for the cessation of hostilities, stating "all war between the parties to this agreement shall for ever [sic] cease." If crimes were committed by "bad men" among white settlers, the government agreed to arrest and punish the offenders, and reimburse any losses suffered by injured parties. The tribes agreed to turn over criminals among them, any "bad men among the Indians," to the government for trial and punishment, and to reimburse any losses suffered by injured parties. [31] If any Sioux committed “a wrong or depredation upon the person or property on any one, white, black, or Indians” the US could pay damages taken from the annuities owed the tribes. [7] : 998 These terms effectively relinquished the authority of the tribes to punish crimes committed against them by white settlers. [32] : 37

Similar provisions appeared in nine such treaties with various tribes. In practice, the "bad men among the whites" clause was seldom enforced. The first plaintiff to win a trial case on the provision did so in 2009, based on the 1868 Fort Laramie treaty. [33] : 2521

In 1873, the US exercised the right to withhold annuities and compensate for Sioux wrongs against anyone, including Indians. After a massacre on a moving Pawnee camp during a legal Sioux hunting expedition in Nebraska, [f] [34] [35] : 53–7 [36] : 41 [37] the Sioux “were made to pay reparations for the loss of life, meat, hides, equipment, and horses stolen. ” [38] : 46 The Pawnee received $9,000. [34] : 139 [39] : 154

Article II Edit

Article two of the treaty changed the boundaries for tribal land and established the Great Sioux Reservation, to include areas of present day South Dakota west of the Missouri River, including the Black Hills. This was set aside for the "absolute and undisturbed use and occupation of the Indians". [2] [31] In total, it allocated about 25% of the Dakota Territory as it existed at the time. [30] : 4 It made the total tribal lands smaller, and moved them further eastward. This was to "take away access to the prime buffalo herds that occupied the area and encourage the Sioux to become farmers." [40] : 2

The government agreed that no parties, other than those authorized by the treaty, would be allowed to "pass over, settle upon, or reside in the territory". [31] According to one source writing on article two, "What remained unstated in the treaty, but would have been obvious to Sherman and his men, is that land not placed in the reservation was to be considered United States property, and not Indian territory." [32] : 37–8

As in 1851, the US recognized most of the land north of the Sioux reservation as Indian territory of the Arikara, Hidatsa and Mandan. [g] [7] : 594 [h] In addition, the US still recognized the 1851 Crow claim to the Indian territory west of the Powder. The Crow and the US came to an agreement about this expanse on May 7, 1868. [i] [7] : 1008–11 [8] : 92

With the reservation border following “the northern line of Nebraska”, the Peace Commission ceded to the Sioux the little Ponca reservation, which had already been guaranteed the Ponca in multiple treaties with the government. [j] [41] : 836–7 “No one has ever been able to explain” this blunder, which was nonetheless enforced by the government, irrespective of their earlier agreements. [42] : 21

Article III Edit

Article three provided for allotments of up to 160 acres (65 ha) of tillable land to be set aside for farming by members of the tribes. [31] [43] : 15 By 1871, 200 farms of 80 acres (32 ha) and 200 farms of 40 acres (16 ha) had been established including 80 homes. By 1877, this had risen to 153 homes "50 of which had shingle roofs and most had board floors" according to an 1876 report by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. [43] : 15

Article IV Edit

The government agreed to build a number of buildings on the reservation:

  • Warehouse
  • Store-room
  • Agency building
  • Physician residence
  • Carpenter residence
  • Farmer residence
  • Blacksmith residence
  • Miller residence
  • Engineer residence
  • School house
  • Saw mill [31]

Article four also provided for the establishment of an agency on the reservation for the purpose of government administration. In practice, five were constructed and two more later added. These original five were composed of the Grand River Agency (Later Standing Rock), Cheyenne River Agency, Whetstone Agency, Crow Creek Agency, and Lower Brulé Agency. Another would later be set up on the White River, and again on the North Platte River, but would later be moved to also be on the White. [30] : 5–6

Articles V through X Edit

The government agreed that the agent for the Bureau of Indian Affairs shall keep his office open to complaints, which he will investigate and forward to the Commissioner. The decision of the Commissioner, subject to review by the Secretary of the Interior, "shall be binding on the parties". [31]

Article six laid out provisions for members of the tribes to take legal individual ownership of previously commonly held land, up to 320 acres (130 ha) for the heads of families, and 80 acres (32 ha) for any adult who was not the head of a family. [30] : 5 [31] This land then "may be occupied and held in the exclusive possession of the person selecting it, and of his family, so long as he or they may continue to cultivate it." [31]

Article seven addressed education for those aged six to 16, in order, as the treaty states, to "insure the civilization of the Indians entering into this treaty". [30] : 5 [31] The tribes agreed to compel both male and females to attend school, and the government agreed to provide a schoolhouse and teacher for every 30 students who could be made to attend. [31]

In article eight, the government agreed to provide seeds, tools, and training for any of the residents who selected tracts of land, and agreed to farm them. This was to be in the amount of up to $100 dollars worth for the first year, and up to $25 worth for the second and third years. [31] These were one of a number of provisions of the treaty designed to encourage farming, rather than hunting, and move the tribes "closer to the white man's way of life." [44] : 44

After 10 years the government may withdraw the individuals from article 13, but if so, will provide $10,000 annually "devoted to the education of said Indians . as will best promote the education and moral improvement of said tribes." These are to be managed by a local Indian agent under the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. [31] [45]

Article 10 provided for an allotment of clothes, and food, in addition to one "good American cow" and two oxen for each lodge or family who moved to the reservation. [30] : 5 [31] It further provided for an annual payment over 30 years of $10 for each person who hunted, and $20 for those who farmed, to be used by the Secretary of the Interior for the "purchase of such articles as from time to time the condition and necessities of the Indians may indicate to be proper." [31]

Article XI Edit

Article 11 included several provisions stating the tribes agreed to withdraw opposition to the construction of railroads (mentioned three times), military posts and roads, and will not attack or capture white settlers or their property. The same guarantee protected third parties defined as “persons friendly” with the United States. [7] : 1002 The government agreed to reimburse the tribes for damages caused in the construction of works on the reservation, in the amount assessed by "three disinterested commissioners" appointed by the President. [31] It guaranteed the tribes access to the area to the north and west of the Black Hills [k] as hunting grounds, "so long as the buffalo may range thereon in such numbers as to justify the chase." [46] : 4

As one source examined the treaty language with regard to "so long as the buffalo may range", the tribes considered this language to be a perpetual guarantee, because "they could not envision a day when buffalo would not roam the plains" however:

The concept was clear enough to the commissioners … [who] well knew that hide hunters, with Sherman’s blessing, were already beginning the slaughter that would eventually drive the Indians to complete dependence on the government for their existence. [1]

Despite Sioux promises of undisturbed construction of railroads and no attacks, more than 10 surveying crew members, US Army Indian scouts and soldiers were killed in 1872 [27] : 49 [47] : 11,13–4 [48] : 61 and 1873. [49] : 532–4 [l]

Because of the Sioux massacre on the Pawnee in southern Nebraska during a hunting expedition in 1873, the US banned such hunts outside the reservation. Thus, the US decision nullified a part of Article XI. [50] : 8

Article XII Edit

Article 12 required the agreement of "three-fourths of all the adult male Indians" for a treaty with the tribes to "be of any validity". [31] [32] : 44 Hedren reflected on article 12 writing that the provision indicated the government "already anticipated a time when different needs would demand the abrogation of the treaty terms." [30] : 5 These provisions have since been controversial, because subsequent treaties amending that of 1868 did not include the required agreement of three-fourths of adult males, and so under the terms of 1868, are invalid. [40] : 2 [m]

Articles XIII through XV Edit

The government agreed to furnish the tribes with a "physician, teachers, carpenter, miller, engineer, farmer, and blacksmiths". [31] [45]

The government agreed to provide $100 in prizes for those who "in the judgment of the agent may grow the most valuable crops for the respective year." [31] Once the promised buildings were constructed, the tribes agreed to regard the reservation as their "permanent home" and make "no permanent settlement elsewhere". [31]

Article XVI Edit

Article 16 stated that country north of the North Platte River and east of the summits of the Big Horn Mountains would be "unceded Indian territory" that no white settlers could occupy without the consent of the tribes. [2] This included 33,000,000 acres (13,000,000 ha) of land outside the reservation which were previously set aside by the 1851 treaty, as well as around an additional 25,000,000 acres (10,000,000 ha). [52] : 268 As part of this, the government agreed to close the forts associated with the Bozeman Trail. Article 16 did not however, address issues related to important hunting grounds north and northwest of the reservation. [30] : 5 The Arikara, Hidatsa and Mandan held the treaty right to the bigger part of those hunting grounds according to the 1851 treaty. [n] [7] : 594 [12] : map facing p. 112 With the 1868 treaty, the Sioux ceded land to the US directly north of the reservation. [o]

This article proclaims the shift of the Indian title to the land east of the summits of the Big Horn Mountains to Powder River (the combat zone of Red Cloud’s War). In 1851, the US had acknowledged the claim of the Crow to this area. [7] : 595 Following defeat, the Peace Commission recognized it as “unceded Indian territory” held by the Sioux. The US Government could only dispose of Crow treaty territory, because it held parallel negotiations with the Crow tribe. The talks ended on May 7, 1868. [8] : 92 The Crows accepted to give up large tracts of land to the US [p] and settle on a reservation in the heart of the 1851 territory. [q] [7] : 1008–1011 [8] : 99

It was possible for the Peace Commission to allow the Sioux to hunt on the Republican Fork in Nebraska (200 miles south of the Sioux reservation) along with others, because the US held the title to this river area. The Cheyenne and Arapaho had ceded the western part of the Republican Fork in 1861 in a more-or-less well-understood treaty. [53] : 48 [54] The US had bought the eastern part of the Republican Fork from the Pawnee in 1833. The Pawnee held a treaty right to hunt in their ceded territory. [7] : 416 [38] : 84 In 1873, the Massacre Canyon battle took place here. [r]

Article XVII Edit

The treaty, as agreed to "shall be construed as abrogating and annulling all treaties and agreements heretofore entered into." [31]

Over the course of 192 days ending November 6, the treaty was signed by a total of 156 Sioux, and 25 Arapaho, in addition to the commissioners, and an additional 34 signatories as witnesses. [55] Although the commissioners signed the document on April 29 along with the Brulé, the party broke up in May, with only two remaining at Fort Laramie to conclude talks there, before traveling up the Missouri River to gather additional signatures from tribes elsewhere. [44] : 44 Throughout this process, no further amendments were made to the terms. As one writer phrased it, "the commissioners essentially cycled Sioux in and out of Fort Laramie . seeking only the formality of the chiefs' marks and forgoing true agreement in the spirit that the Indians understood it." [33] : 2537–8

Following initial negotiations, those from the Peace Commission did not discuss the conditions of the treaty to subsequent tribes who arrived over the following months to sign. Rather, the treaty was read aloud, and it was permitted "some time for the chiefs to speak" before "instructing them to place their marks on the prepared document." [44] : 44 As the source continues:

These tribes had little interest in or understanding of what had taken place at the Fort Laramie councils. They wanted the whites out of their country and would fight as long as necessary. [44] : 44

The process of abandoning the forts associated with the Bozeman Trail, as part of the conditions agreed to, proved to be a long process, and was stalled by difficulty arranging the sale of the goods from the fort to the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Fort C.F. Smith was not emptied until July 29. Fort Phil Kearny and Fort Reno were not emptied until August 1. Once abandoned, Red Cloud and his followers, who had been monitoring the activities of the troops rode down and burned what remained. [44] : 45–6

The peace commission dissolved on October 10 after presenting its report to Congress, which among other things, recommended the government "cease to recognize the Indian tribes as domestic dependent nations," and that no further "treaties shall be made with any Indian tribe." [44] : 46 William Dye, the commander at Fort Laramie was left to represent the commission, and met with Red Cloud, who was among the last to sign the treaty on November 6. [30] : 3 [44] : 46 The government remained unwilling to negotiate the terms further, and after two days, Red Cloud is reported to have "washed his hands with the dust of the floor" and signed, formally ending the war. [44] : 46

The US Senate ratified the treaty on February 16, 1869. [56] : 1

Signatories Edit

Notable signatories presented in the order they signed are as follows. Two exceptions are included. Henderson was a commissioner, but did not sign the treaty. Red Cloud was among the last to sign, but is listed here out-of-order along with the other Oglala.

Commissioners Edit

    , Commissioner of Indian Affairs [31] , lieutenant general, US Army [31][s] , Brevetmajor general, US Army [31] , former brevet major general of volunteers, and former member of a previous peace commission organized by Alfred Sully[1] , journalist, abolitionist, and activist who rose to prominence after investigating the Sand Creek massacre[1] , Brevet Major General, and commander of the Department of the Platte[1][t] , Brevet major general, US Army [31] , US Senator and Chairman of the United States Senate Committee on Indian Affairs[57][u]

Chiefs and headmen Edit

Although the treaty required the consent of three-fourths of the men of the tribes, many did not sign or recognize the results. [4] Others would later complain that the treaty contained complex language that was not well explained in order to avoid arousing suspicion. [40] : 1–2 Yet others would not fully learn the terms of the agreement until 1870, when Red Cloud returned from a trip to Washington D.C. [44] : 47

The treaty overall, and in comparison with the 1851 agreement, represented a departure from earlier considerations of tribal customs, and demonstrated instead the government's "more heavy-handed position with regard to tribal nations, and . desire to assimilate the Sioux into American property arrangements and social customs." [60]

According to one source, "animosities over the treaty arose almost immediately" when a group of Miniconjou were informed they were no longer welcome to trade at Fort Laramie, being south of their newly established territory. This was notwithstanding that the treaty did not make any stipulation that the tribes could not travel outside their land, only that they would not permanently occupy outside land. The only travel expressly forbidden by the treaty was that of white settlers onto the reservation. [1]

Although a treaty between the US and the Sioux, it had profound effect on the Crow tribe, since it held the title to some of the territories set aside in the new treaty. By entering the peace talks “. the government had in effect betrayed the Crows, who had willingly helped the army to hold the [Bozeman Trail] posts . ”. [27] : 40

When the Sioux Indians had stopped the advance of the US in 1868, they quickly resumed their “own program of expansions” [21] : 342 into the adjoining Indian territories. [12] : 120 Although all parties took and gave, [6] : 145–6 [18] : 135–6 [61] : 42 the Sioux and their allies once again threatened the homeland of some of the Indian nations around them. Attacks on the Crows and the Shoshones were “frequent, both by the Northern Cheyennes and by the Arapahos, as well as the Sioux, and by parties made up from all three tribes”. [62] : 347 [63] : 127, 153, 257 The Crows reported Sioux Indians in the Bighorn area from 1871. [61] : 43 This eastern part of the Crow reservation was taken over a few years later by the Sioux in quest of buffalo. When a force of Sioux warriors confronted a Crow reservation camp at Pryor Creek in 1873 throughout a whole day, [8] : 107 Crow chief Blackfoot called for decisive actions against the Indian intruders by the US. [8] : 106 In 1876, the Crows (and the Eastern Shoshones) fought alongside the Army at the Rosebud. [8] : 108–9 [27] : 114–6 They scouted for Custer against the Sioux, “who were now in the old Crow country”. [64] : X

Both the tribes and the government chose to ignore portions of the treaty, or to "comply only as long as conditions met their favor," and between 1869 and 1876, at least seven separate skirmishes occurred within the vicinity of Fort Laramie. [30] : 6–7 Prior to the Black Hills expedition, Army sources mention attacks in Montana north of the Yellowstone and north of the Sioux reservation in North Dakota carried out by unidentified groups of Sioux. [48] : 61, 66 Large war parties of Sioux Indians left their reservation to attack distant Indian enemies near Like-a-Fishhook Village. [12] : 120 [18] : 133 [65] : 112 [x] The first talks of actions against the Sioux arose. In his 1873 report, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs advocated, “that those [Sioux] Indians roaming west of the Dakota line be forced by the military to come in to the Great Sioux Reservation.” [66] : 145

The government eventually broke the terms of the treaty following the Black Hills Gold Rush and an expedition into the area by George Armstrong Custer in 1874, and failed to prevent white settlers from moving onto tribal lands. Rising tensions eventually led again to open conflict in the Great Sioux War of 1876. [9] [32] : 46 [67]

The 1868 treaty would be modified three times by the US Congress between 1876 and 1889, each time taking more land originally granted, including unilaterally seizing the Black Hills in 1877. [60]

United States v. Sioux Nation of Indians Edit

On June 30, 1980, the US Supreme Court ruled that the government had illegally taken land in the Black Hills granted by the 1868 treaty, by unlawfully abrogating article two of the agreement during negotiations in 1876, while failing to achieve the signatures of two-thirds the adult male population required to do so. It upheld an award of $15.5 million for the market value of the land in 1877, along with 103 years worth of interest at 5 percent, for an additional $105 million. The Lakota Sioux, however, have refused to accept payment and instead continue to demand the return of the territory from the United States. [68] As of 24 August 2011 [update] the Sioux interest on the money has compounded to over 1 billion dollars. [69]

Commemoration Edit

Marking the 150th anniversary of the treaty, the South Dakota Legislature passed Senate Resolution 1, reaffirming the legitimacy of the treaty, and according to the original text, illustrating to the federal government that the Sioux are "still here" and are "seeking a future of forward-looking, positive relationships with full respect for the sovereign status of Native American nations confirmed by the treaty." [70] [71]

On March 11, 2018, the Governor of Wyoming, Matt Mead signed a similar bill into law, calling on "the federal government to uphold its federal trust responsibilities," and calling for a permanent display of the original treaty, on file with the National Archives and Records Administration, in the Wyoming Legislature. [72] [73]


Murder suspect Francis Weaver's family history spans four generations of violence

This story was originally published on Aug. 25, 2002, the year Ward Weaver III was arrested in the murders of Ashley Pond and Miranda Gaddis. On Tuesday, Weaver's son, Francis Paul Weaver, was arrested in the shooting death of a man in Canby.

As investigators closed in on Ward Weaver III, he told anyone who would listen that he was being badgered to confess to crimes he didn't commit.

Then he called Rodney Weaver, his half-brother in Idaho, complaining that his phone was tapped, that he was being followed and that investigators were relentlessly pressing him to confess.

Ward Weaver insisted it was all a mistake. The only reason police suspected he was capable of killing Ashley Pond and Miranda Gaddis, he told his brother, was because of the grisly crimes committed more than two decades ago by their father, a long-haul trucker who murdered a young couple and buried the woman in a backyard grave sealed with concrete.

But on Saturday, just weeks later, authorities made a discovery that suggested chilling parallels to his father's crimes. What appear to be human remains were found in a shed and investigators were searching beneath a concrete slab for what is expected to be the body of the second missing teen-ager.

Weaver publicly proclaimed his innocence, even as he drew attention to himself with claims he was a suspect. He highlighted his close ties to Ashley, portraying himself as a fatherly figure to a girl who, family members later said, had accused him of sexual abuse before she vanished.

Two weeks ago, his son, Francis Weaver, told a Clackamas County dispatcher that his father had confessed to him that he had raped and killed the two girls.

In an interview last week at his home in Shoshone, about 25 miles north of Twin Falls, Rodney Weaver said his brother tried to convince him that he was being pursued by police because of their father's past.

"He kept blaming it on our dad," said Rodney Weaver, the youngest of Ward Weaver Jr.'s children.

The Weaver family history is a deeply troubled and especially violent one. The family patriarch sits on California's Death Row for clubbing a stranded motorist to death in 1981, then raping and strangling the man's fiancee before dumping her body in a backyard grave he told his unwitting 10-year-old son, Rodney, to dig.

Ward Weaver III spent time in prison in the mid-1980s for striking a baby sitter with a 12-pound chunk of cement, and his two former wives have accused him of abuse.

Weaver's son, Francis, rattled the sleepy Idaho town of Shoshone in 1999, when he shot a rifle into a truckload of teens, injuring one.

The roots of the Weaver family troubles stretch back at least four generations to Dorothy Weaver, Ward Weaver Jr.'s mother, who, according to a Kern County, Calif., prosecutor, harbored a deep hatred of men. Ron Shumaker, who prosecuted the death penalty case against Weaver Jr., cited court testimony from a witness who said Dorothy, wielding a butcher knife, once declared that she wanted to "cut off all their penises."

Her influence on her son, however, was profound, Shumaker said. "He did nothing without Mama," he said.

Rodney Weaver, who met Ward only seven years ago, said heɽ always wondered about his half-siblings, especially Ward. His father mentioned them, the products of his first marriage, in a matter-of-fact way one day. A single photograph of two girls and Ward hung on the family's living room wall.

Ward Weaver Jr., a long-haul truck driver, spent a lot of time away from his family. His wife, Rodney's mother, was a cook in a local diner. On the days Weaver Jr. was home, he often took Rodney fishing.

Rodney first sensed his father's troubles in 1978. He was only about 8 when his father was sentenced to prison for a year and a half, an absence that was at first explained as a business trip. Eventually he learned that his father was serving time for a rape conviction.

Weaver Jr. would get into more trouble in 1981, when he was convicted and sentenced to 42 years in prison. Weaver Jr. picked up two runaways and arranged for a friend to shoot the 18-year-old man, and Weaver Jr. repeatedly raped the 15-year-old girl before letting her go.

It turned out later that Weaver Jr.'s truck routes matched up with 26 unsolved hitchhiker homicides, said Shumaker. Weaver Jr. has never been charged in any of those cases.

It was when Weaver Jr. was in prison for the attack on the runaways that he confided to a cellmate that he had killed another couple. Weaver Jr. beat 18-year-old Robert Radford to death with a pipe. Heɽ been hit so many times "you couldn't distinguish one (blow) from another," Shumaker said.

Then Weaver Jr. kidnapped, raped and strangled the man's 23-year-old fiancee, Barbara Levoy.

Weaver Jr.'s cellmate told authorities. And when police showed up at prison to ask Weaver Jr. about the crime, Shumaker said Weaver Jr. had only one request: "I need to talk to my mother," he said.

"They let him make a phone call," Shumaker said, "and then he talked to them and he laid it all out."

Rodney, now 31, remembers his father coming home "all freaked out" one night in 1981. He told his family heɽ been in a bar fight and that a man had bitten off the tip of his thumb. Weaver Jr. was so unnerved by the incident that he didn't want his children attending school the following day, Rodney said.

But, according to California court records, Levoy had bitten his thumb when he tried gagging her. Weaver Jr. then struck her twice and strangled her to death.

According to court records, he buried her body in three places before moving her remains to a hole his son helped him dig behind his rented house in Oroville, Calif., where Weaver's second wife and their young children lived.

He asked Rodney to help him finish filling the hole where heɽ buried Levoy's body. Rodney remembers packing the dirt. Later, his father sealed the grave with concrete and built a deck on top of it.

On the afternoon of July 26, 1982, two detectives showed up at the two-story house and wanted to speak to Rodney about the holes heɽ helped dig.

They brought in a backhoe and cracked the concrete into two chunks. From his bedroom on the second floor, he watched as they lifted one of the pieces. "And there she was," said Rodney.

That's why he was stunned to learn his brother had installed a concrete pad in the back of his Oregon City home. Ward Weaver said the pad was for a hot tub, but Rodney thought the timing was odd, because it went in around the times the girls vanished.

"That blew me away," he said. "I was thinking to myself, 'What are you doing?'

"If he did it," Rodney said last week, "that's where theyɽ be."

By then, the police in Oregon City had begun to intensify their focus on Ward Weaver. By his own account, he had taken and flunked a lie detector test. His work records were reviewed by investigators. His close ties to Ashley had been probed. Search dogs had scoured rural spots where he liked to camp.

Weaver's long history of run-ins with the law, ranging from a felony assault to a troubled driving record, made him a plausible suspect. Weaver, who has been divorced twice and has five children, has been described by police and former relatives as a violent man with an explosive temper.

According to Clackamas County law enforcement records, police have been dispatched to Weaver's home 10 times since November 2000. Many of the calls were domestic in nature.

In late June, two detectives even made a trip to Idaho to interview Rodney Weaver about his brother. Rodney hadn't seen his brother in a year. And heɽ never met Ashley or Miranda. But he did tell investigators about the time he went camping with Ward in rural Molalla -- an area later searched by cadaver dogs.

Rodney Weaver said he last spoke with his brother on the Monday before his Aug. 13 rape arrest. Ward Weaver was almost finished packing his things, he told his brother. He planned to move to Idaho, Washington or maybe even Mexico.

Rodney, a construction worker, doesn't believe crime is in the Weaver family genes. If anything, seeing his father on Death Row has motivated him to lead a straight life.

Still, he said, it wouldn't surprise him to learn his older brother had something to do with the disappearances of Ashley and Miranda.

"I would like to believe" that he is not responsible, Rodney Weaver said. "It's not going to shock me if he did, not because of his past history, but because I've dealt with it before."


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